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QEMU tricks and reference

Today I tried to run WinXP on my newly upgraded Linux Ubuntu 12.04. It did not work... that's because the aqemu graphical interface tries to run qemu which was replaced with specially named emulators: qemu-i386, qemu-system-x86_64, etc. (try ls /usr/bin/qemu* to see a complete list on your system.)

So... I got the command line from the aqemu graphical interface, did a copy / paste and replaced the name with qemu-system-i386 and got the emulator started as expected. That worked fine, but then the window remained small (640x480) which I wouldn't care much if I weren't really using the emulator directly (opposed to an automated set of scripts, etc.) To get the window at the right size, I had problem. I can resize the window but that doesn't give me the correct size. To do so, I had to search for the docs and found out that I could use the following:

Ctrl-Alt-u

when I selected that window (but do not click inside the window! in my case just placing the mouse over the window is enough as I have auto-focus, but you may need to click on the frame.)

The reference comes from the QEMU website (source: QEMU Emulator User Documentation)


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QEMU Emulator User Documentation


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1. Introduction


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1.1 Features

QEMU is a FAST! processor emulator using dynamic translation to achieve good emulation speed.

QEMU has two operating modes:

  • - Full system emulation. In this mode, QEMU emulates a full system (for example a PC), including one or several processors and various peripherals. It can be used to launch different Operating Systems without rebooting the PC or to debug system code.
  • - User mode emulation. In this mode, QEMU can launch processes compiled for one CPU on another CPU. It can be used to launch the Wine Windows API emulator (http://www.winehq.org) or to ease cross-compilation and cross-debugging.

QEMU can run without an host kernel driver and yet gives acceptable performance.

For system emulation, the following hardware targets are supported:

  • PC (x86 or x86_64 processor)
  • ISA PC (old style PC without PCI bus)
  • PREP (PowerPC processor)
  • G3 Beige PowerMac (PowerPC processor)
  • Mac99 PowerMac (PowerPC processor, in progress)
  • Sun4m/Sun4c/Sun4d (32-bit Sparc processor)
  • Sun4u/Sun4v (64-bit Sparc processor, in progress)
  • Malta board (32-bit and 64-bit MIPS processors)
  • MIPS Magnum (64-bit MIPS processor)
  • ARM Integrator/CP (ARM)
  • ARM Versatile baseboard (ARM)
  • ARM RealView Emulation/Platform baseboard (ARM)
  • Spitz, Akita, Borzoi, Terrier and Tosa PDAs (PXA270 processor)
  • Luminary Micro LM3S811EVB (ARM Cortex-M3)
  • Luminary Micro LM3S6965EVB (ARM Cortex-M3)
  • Freescale MCF5208EVB (ColdFire V2).
  • Arnewsh MCF5206 evaluation board (ColdFire V2).
  • Palm Tungsten|E PDA (OMAP310 processor)
  • N800 and N810 tablets (OMAP2420 processor)
  • MusicPal (MV88W8618 ARM processor)
  • Gumstix "Connex" and "Verdex" motherboards (PXA255/270).
  • Siemens SX1 smartphone (OMAP310 processor)
  • Syborg SVP base model (ARM Cortex-A8).
  • AXIS-Devboard88 (CRISv32 ETRAX-FS).
  • Petalogix Spartan 3aDSP1800 MMU ref design (MicroBlaze).

For user emulation, x86, PowerPC, ARM, 32-bit MIPS, Sparc32/64, ColdFire(m68k), CRISv32 and MicroBlaze CPUs are supported.


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2. Installation

If you want to compile QEMU yourself, see Compilation from the sources.


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2.1 Linux

If a precompiled package is available for your distribution - you just have to install it. Otherwise, see Compilation from the sources.


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2.2 Windows

There was an experimental binary installer at OS Zoo which it seems is not available anymore.


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2.3 Mac OS X

Download the experimental binary installer at OS Zoo if you find it. (OS Zoo seems to be out of commission)


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3. QEMU PC System emulator


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3.1 Introduction

The QEMU PC System emulator simulates the following peripherals:

  • - i440FX host PCI bridge and PIIX3 PCI to ISA bridge
  • - Cirrus CLGD 5446 PCI VGA card or dummy VGA card with Bochs VESA extensions (hardware level, including all non standard modes).
  • - PS/2 mouse and keyboard
  • - 2 PCI IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
  • - Floppy disk
  • - PCI and ISA network adapters
  • - Serial ports
  • - Creative SoundBlaster 16 sound card
  • - ENSONIQ AudioPCI ES1370 sound card
  • - Intel 82801AA AC97 Audio compatible sound card
  • - Adlib(OPL2) - Yamaha YM3812 compatible chip
  • - Gravis Ultrasound GF1 sound card
  • - CS4231A compatible sound card
  • - PCI UHCI USB controller and a virtual USB hub.

SMP is supported with up to 255 CPUs.

Note that adlib, gus and cs4231a are only available when QEMU was configured with –audio-card-list option containing the name(s) of required card(s).

QEMU uses the PC BIOS from the Bochs project and the Plex86/Bochs LGPL VGA BIOS.

QEMU uses YM3812 emulation by Tatsuyuki Satoh.

QEMU uses GUS emulation(GUSEMU32 http://www.deinmeister.de/gusemu/) by Tibor "TS" Schütz.

Not that, by default, GUS shares IRQ(7) with parallel ports and so qemu must be told to not have parallel ports to have working GUS

 
qemu dos.img -soundhw gus -parallel none

Alternatively:

 
qemu dos.img -device gus,irq=5

Or some other unclaimed IRQ.

CS4231A is the chip used in Windows Sound System and GUSMAX products


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3.2 Quick Start

Download and uncompress the linux image (‘linux.img’) and type:

 
qemu linux.img

Linux should boot and give you a prompt.


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3.3 Invocation

 
usage: qemu [options] [disk_image]

disk_image is a raw hard disk image for IDE hard disk 0. Some targets do not need a disk image.

Standard options:

-h

Display help and exit

-version

Display version information and exit

-M machine

Select the emulated machine (-M ?for list)

-cpu model

Select CPU model (-cpu ? for list and additional feature selection)

-smp n[,cores=cores][,threads=threads][,sockets=sockets][,maxcpus=maxcpus]

Simulate an SMP system with n CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255 CPUs are supported. On Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs to 4. For the PC target, the number of cores per socket, the number of threads per cores and the total number of sockets can be specified. Missing values will be computed. If any on the three values is given, the total number of CPUs n can be omitted. maxcpus specifies the maximum number of hotpluggable CPUs.

-numa opts

Simulate a multi node NUMA system. If mem and cpus are omitted, resources are split equally.

-fda file
-fdb file

Use file as floppy disk 0/1 image (see section Disk Images). You can use the host floppy by using ‘/dev/fd0’ as filename (see section Using host drives).

-hda file
-hdb file
-hdc file
-hdd file

Use file as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (see section Disk Images).

-cdrom file

Use file as CD-ROM image (you cannot use ‘-hdc’ and ‘-cdrom’ at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by using ‘/dev/cdrom’ as filename (see section Using host drives).

-drive option[,option[,option[,...]]]

Define a new drive. Valid options are:

file=file

This option defines which disk image (see section Disk Images) to use with this drive. If the filename contains comma, you must double it (for instance, "file=my,,file" to use file "my,file").

if=interface

This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected. Available types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash, virtio.

bus=bus,unit=unit

These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and the unit id.

index=index

This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list of available connectors of a given interface type.

media=media

This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.

cyls=c,heads=h,secs=s[,trans=t]

These options have the same definition as they have in ‘-hdachs’.

snapshot=snapshot

snapshot is "on" or "off" and allows to enable snapshot for given drive (see ‘-snapshot’).

cache=cache

cache is "none", "writeback", or "writethrough" and controls how the host cache is used to access block data.

aio=aio

aio is "threads", or "native" and selects between pthread based disk I/O and native Linux AIO.

format=format

Specify which disk format will be used rather than detecting the format. Can be used to specifiy format=raw to avoid interpreting an untrusted format header.

serial=serial

This option specifies the serial number to assign to the device.

addr=addr

Specify the controller’s PCI address (if=virtio only).

By default, writethrough caching is used for all block device. This means that the host page cache will be used to read and write data but write notification will be sent to the guest only when the data has been reported as written by the storage subsystem.

Writeback caching will report data writes as completed as soon as the data is present in the host page cache. This is safe as long as you trust your host. If your host crashes or loses power, then the guest may experience data corruption. When using the ‘-snapshotoption, writeback caching is used by default.

The host page cache can be avoided entirely with ‘cache=none’. This will attempt to do disk IO directly to the guests memory. QEMU may still perform an internal copy of the data.

Some block drivers perform badly with ‘cache=writethrough’, most notably, qcow2. If performance is more important than correctness, ‘cache=writeback’ should be used with qcow2.

Instead of ‘-cdrom’ you can use:

 
qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom

Instead of ‘-hda’, ‘-hdb’, ‘-hdc’, ‘-hdd’, you can use:

 
qemu -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
qemu -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
qemu -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk

You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:

 
qemu -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom

If you don’t specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:

 
qemu -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom

You can connect a SCSI disk with unit ID 6 on the bus #0:

 
qemu -drive file=file,if=scsi,bus=0,unit=6

Instead of ‘-fda’, ‘-fdb’, you can use:

 
qemu -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
qemu -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy

By default, interface is "ide" and index is automatically incremented:

 
qemu -drive file=a -drive file=b"

is interpreted like:

 
qemu -hda a -hdb b
-mtdblock file

Use file as on-board Flash memory image.

-sd file

Use file as SecureDigital card image.

-pflash file

Use file as a parallel flash image.

-boot [order=drives][,once=drives][,menu=on|off]

Specify boot order drives as a string of drive letters. Valid drive letters depend on the target achitecture. The x86 PC uses: a, b (floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk), d (first CD-ROM), n-p (Etherboot from network adapter 1-4), hard disk boot is the default. To apply a particular boot order only on the first startup, specify it via ‘once’.

Interactive boot menus/prompts can be enabled via ‘menu=on’ as far as firmware/BIOS supports them. The default is non-interactive boot.

 
# try to boot from network first, then from hard disk
qemu -boot order=nc
# boot from CD-ROM first, switch back to default order after reboot
qemu -boot once=d

Note: The legacy format ’-boot drives’ is still supported but its use is discouraged as it may be removed from future versions.

-snapshot

Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case, the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force the write back by pressing <C-a s> (see section Disk Images).

-m megs

Set virtual RAM size to megs megabytes. Default is 128 MiB. Optionally, a suffix of “M” or “G” can be used to signify a value in megabytes or gigabytes respectively.

-k language

Use keyboard layout language (for example frfor French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC display). You don’t normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows hosts.

The available layouts are:

 
ar  de-ch  es  fo     fr-ca  hu  ja  mk     no  pt-br  sv
da  en-gb  et  fr     fr-ch  is  lt  nl     pl  ru     th
de  en-us  fi  fr-be  hr     it  lv  nl-be  pt  sl     tr

The default is en-us.

-audio-help

Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable parameters.

-soundhw card1[,card2,...] or -soundhw all

Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all available sound hardware.

 
qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib disk.img
qemu -soundhw es1370 disk.img
qemu -soundhw ac97 disk.img
qemu -soundhw all disk.img
qemu -soundhw ?

Note that Linux’s i810_audio OSS kernel (for AC97) module might require manually specifying clocking.

 
modprobe i810_audio clocking=48000

USB options:

-usb

Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)

-usbdevice devname

Add the USB device devname. See section Connecting USB devices.

mouse

Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

tablet

Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

disk:[format=format]:file

Mass storage device based on file. The optional format argument will be used rather than detecting the format. Can be used to specifiy format=rawto avoid interpreting an untrusted format header.

host:bus.addr

Pass through the host device identified by bus.addr (Linux only).

host:vendor_id:product_id

Pass through the host device identified by vendor_id:product_id (Linux only).

serial:[vendorid=vendor_id][,productid=product_id]:dev

Serial converter to host character device dev, see -serialfor the available devices.

braille

Braille device. This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real or fake device.

net:options

Network adapter that supports CDC ethernet and RNDIS protocols.

-device driver[,option[,...]]

Add device driver. Depending on the device type, option (typically key=value) may be useful.

-name name

Sets the name of the guest. This name will be displayed in the SDL window caption. The name will also be used for the VNC server. Also optionally set the top visible process name in Linux.

-uuid uuid

Set system UUID.

Display options:

-nographic

Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option, you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel with a serial console.

-curses

Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option, QEMU can display the VGA output when in text mode using a curses/ncurses interface. Nothing is displayed in graphical mode.

-no-frame

Do not use decorations for SDL windows and start them using the whole available screen space. This makes the using QEMU in a dedicated desktop workspace more convenient.

-alt-grab

Use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).

-ctrl-grab

Use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).

-no-quit

Disable SDL window close capability.

-sdl

Enable SDL.

-portrait

Rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD).

-vga type

Select type of VGA card to emulate. Valid values for type are

cirrus

Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from Windows 95 should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal performances, use 16 bit color depth in the guest and the host OS. (This one is the default)

std

Standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions. If your guest OS supports the VESA 2.0 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want to use high resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use this option.

vmware

VMWare SVGA-II compatible adapter. Use it if you have sufficiently recent XFree86/XOrg server or Windows guest with a driver for this card.

none

Disable VGA card.

-full-screen

Start in full screen.

-vnc display[,option[,option[,...]]]

Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option, you can have QEMU listen on VNC display display and redirect the VGA display over the VNC session. It is very useful to enable the usb tablet device when using this option (option-usbdevice tablet’). When using the VNC display, you must use the ‘-kparameter to set the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us. Valid syntax for the display is

host:d

TCP connections will only be allowed from host on display d. By convention the TCP port is 5900+d. Optionally, host can be omitted in which case the server will accept connections from any host.

unix:path

Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where path is the location of a unix socket to listen for connections on.

none

VNC is initialized but not started. The monitor changecommand can be used to later start the VNC server.

Following the display value there may be one or more option flags separated by commas. Valid options are

reverse

Connect to a listening VNC client via a “reverse” connection. The client is specified by the display. For reverse network connections (host:d,reverse), the d argument is a TCP port number, not a display number.

password

Require that password based authentication is used for client connections. The password must be set separately using the changecommand in the QEMU Monitor

tls

Require that client use TLS when communicating with the VNC server. This uses anonymous TLS credentials so is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack. It is recommended that this option be combined with either the ‘x509’ or ‘x509verifyoptions.

x509=/path/to/certificate/dir

Valid if ‘tls’ is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate to the client. It is recommended that a password be set on the VNC server to provide authentication of the client when this is used. The path following this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to be loaded from. See the VNC security section for details on generating certificates.

x509verify=/path/to/certificate/dir

Valid if ‘tls’ is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate to the client, and request that the client send its own x509 certificate. The server will validate the client’s certificate against the CA certificate, and reject clients when validation fails. If the certificate authority is trusted, this is a sufficient authentication mechanism. You may still wish to set a password on the VNC server as a second authentication layer. The path following this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to be loaded from. See the VNC security section for details on generating certificates.

sasl

Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the VNC server. The exact choice of authentication method used is controlled from the system / user’s SASL configuration file for the ’qemu’ service. This is typically found in /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an unprivileged user, an environment variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used to make it search alternate locations for the service config. While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg GSSAPI), it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the ’tls’ and ’x509’ settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This ensures a data encryption preventing compromise of authentication credentials. See the VNC security section for details on using SASL authentication.

acl

Turn on access control lists for checking of the x509 client certificate and SASL party. For x509 certs, the ACL check is made against the certificate’s distinguished name. This is something that looks like C=GB,O=ACME,L=Boston,CN=bob. For SASL party, the ACL check is made against the username, which depending on the SASL plugin, may include a realm component, eg bobor bob@EXAMPLE.COM. When the ‘acl’ flag is set, the initial access list will be empty, with a denypolicy. Thus no one will be allowed to use the VNC server until the ACLs have been loaded. This can be achieved using the aclmonitor command.

i386 target only:

-win2k-hack

Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option slows down the IDE transfers).

-no-fd-bootchk

Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may be needed to boot from old floppy disks.

-no-acpi

Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine only).

-no-hpet

Disable HPET support.

-balloon none

Disable balloon device.

-balloon virtio[,addr=addr]

Enable virtio balloon device (default), optionally with PCI address addr.

-acpitable [sig=str][,rev=n][,oem_id=str][,oem_table_id=str][,oem_rev=n] [,asl_compiler_id=str][,asl_compiler_rev=n][,data=file1[:file2]...]

Add ACPI table with specified header fields and context from specified files.

-smbios file=binary

Load SMBIOS entry from binary file.

-smbios type=0[,vendor=str][,version=str][,date=str][,release=%d.%d]

Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields

-smbios type=1[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str][,uuid=uuid][,sku=str][,family=str]

Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields

Network options:

-net nic[,vlan=n][,macaddr=mac][,model=type][,name=name][,addr=addr][,vectors=v]

Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN n (n = 0 is the default). The NIC is an e1000 by default on the PC target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed to mac, the device address set to addr (PCI cards only), and a name can be assigned for use in monitor commands. Optionally, for PCI cards, you can specify the number v of MSI-X vectors that the card should have; this option currently only affects virtio cards; set v = 0 to disable MSI-X. If no ‘-netoption is specified, a single NIC is created. Qemu can emulate several different models of network card. Valid values for type are virtio, i82551, i82557b, i82559er, ne2k_pci, ne2k_isa, pcnet, rtl8139, e1000, smc91c111, lanceand mcf_fec. Not all devices are supported on all targets. Use -net nic,model=? for a list of available devices for your target.

-net user[,option][,option][,...]

Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator privilege to run. Valid options are:

vlan=n

Connect user mode stack to VLAN n (n = 0 is the default).

name=name

Assign symbolic name for use in monitor commands.

net=addr[/mask]

Set IP network address the guest will see. Optionally specify the netmask, either in the form a.b.c.d or as number of valid top-most bits. Default is 10.0.2.0/8.

host=addr

Specify the guest-visible address of the host. Default is the 2nd IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.2.

restrict=y|yes|n|no

If this options is enabled, the guest will be isolated, i.e. it will not be able to contact the host and no guest IP packets will be routed over the host to the outside. This option does not affect explicitly set forwarding rule.

hostname=name

Specifies the client hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.

dhcpstart=addr

Specify the first of the 16 IPs the built-in DHCP server can assign. Default is the 16th to 31st IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.16 to x.x.x.31.

dns=addr

Specify the guest-visible address of the virtual nameserver. The address must be different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.3.

tftp=dir

When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP server. The files in dir will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server. The TFTP client on the guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command binof the Unix TFTP client).

bootfile=file

When using the user mode network stack, broadcast file as the BOOTP filename. In conjunction with ‘tftp’, this can be used to network boot a guest from a local directory.

Example (using pxelinux):

 
qemu -hda linux.img -boot n -net user,tftp=/path/to/tftp/files,bootfile=/pxelinux.0
smb=dir[,smbserver=addr]

When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in ‘dir’ transparently. The IP address of the SMB server can be set to addr. By default the 4th IP in the guest network is used, i.e. x.x.x.4.

In the guest Windows OS, the line:

 
10.0.2.4 smbserver

must be added in the fileC:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS’ (for windows 9x/Me) or ‘C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS’ (Windows NT/2000).

Then ‘dir’ can be accessed in ‘\\smbserver\qemu’.

Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in ‘/usr/sbin/smbd’. QEMU was tested successfully with smbd versions from Red Hat 9, Fedora Core 3 and OpenSUSE 11.x.

hostfwd=[tcp|udp]:[hostaddr]:hostport-[guestaddr]:guestport

Redirect incoming TCP or UDP connections to the host port hostport to the guest IP address guestaddr on guest port guestport. If guestaddr is not specified, its value is x.x.x.15 (default first address given by the built-in DHCP server). By specifying hostaddr, the rule can be bound to a specific host interface. If no connection type is set, TCP is used. This option can be given multiple times.

For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest screen 0, use the following:

 
# on the host
qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp:127.0.0.1:6001-:6000 [...]
# this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
xterm -display :1

To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on the guest, use the following:

 
# on the host
qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp:5555::23 [...]
telnet localhost 5555

Then when you use on the host telnet localhost 5555, you connect to the guest telnet server.

guestfwd=[tcp]:server:port-dev

Forward guest TCP connections to the IP address server on port port to the character device dev. This option can be given multiple times.

Note: Legacy stand-alone options -tftp, -bootp, -smb and -redir are still processed and applied to -net user. Mixing them with the new configuration syntax gives undefined results. Their use for new applications is discouraged as they will be removed from future versions.

-net tap[,vlan=n][,name=name][,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file][,downscript=dfile]

Connect the host TAP network interface name to VLAN n, use the network script file to configure it and the network script dfile to deconfigure it. If name is not provided, the OS automatically provides one. ‘fd’=h can be used to specify the handle of an already opened host TAP interface. The default network configure script is ‘/etc/qemu-ifup’ and the default network deconfigure script is ‘/etc/qemu-ifdown’. Use ‘script=no’ or ‘downscript=no’ to disable script execution. Example:

 
qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap

More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)

 
qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
-net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1
-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=name][,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]

Connect the VLAN n to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual machine using a TCP socket connection. If ‘listen’ is specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on port (host is optional). ‘connect’ is used to connect to another QEMU instance using the ‘listenoption. ‘fd’=h specifies an already opened TCP socket.

Example:

 
# launch a first QEMU instance
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
-net socket,listen=:1234
# connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
# of the first instance
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
-net socket,connect=127.0.0.1:1234
-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=name][,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port]

Create a VLAN n shared with another QEMU virtual machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus for every QEMU with same multicast address maddr and port. NOTES:

  1. Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming correct multicast setup for these hosts).
  2. mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argumentethN=mcast’), see http://user-mode-linux.sf.net.
  3. Use ‘fd=h’ to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.

Example:

 
# launch one QEMU instance
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
-net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
# launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
-net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
# launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
-net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234

Example (User Mode Linux compat.):

 
# launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
# is UML's default)
qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
-net socket,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102
# launch UML
/path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
-net vde[,vlan=n][,name=name][,sock=socketpath][,port=n][,group=groupname][,mode=octalmode]

Connect VLAN n to PORT n of a vde switch running on host and listening for incoming connections on socketpath. Use GROUP groupname and MODE octalmode to change default ownership and permissions for communication port. This option is available only if QEMU has been compiled with vde support enabled.

Example:

 
# launch vde switch
vde_switch -F -sock /tmp/myswitch
# launch QEMU instance
qemu linux.img -net nic -net vde,sock=/tmp/myswitch
-net dump[,vlan=n][,file=file][,len=len]

Dump network traffic on VLAN n to file file (‘qemu-vlan0.pcap’ by default). At most len bytes (64k by default) per packet are stored. The file format is libpcap, so it can be analyzed with tools such as tcpdump or Wireshark.

-net none

Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to override the default configuration (‘-net nic -net user’) which is activated if no ‘-netoptions are provided.

Character device options:

The general form of a character device option is:

-chardev backend ,id=id [,options]

Backend is one of: ‘null’, ‘socket’, ‘udp’, ‘msmouse’, ‘vc’, ‘file’, ‘pipe’, ‘console’, ‘serial’, ‘pty’, ‘stdio’, ‘braille’, ‘tty’, ‘parport’. The specific backend will determine the applicable options.

All devices must have an id, which can be any string up to 127 characters long. It is used to uniquely identify this device in other command line directives.

Options to each backend are described below.

-chardev null ,id=id

A void device. This device will not emit any data, and will drop any data it receives. The null backend does not take any options.

-chardev socket ,id=id [TCP options or unix options] [,server] [,nowait] [,telnet]

Create a two-way stream socket, which can be either a TCP or a unix socket. A unix socket will be created if ‘path’ is specified. Behaviour is undefined if TCP options are specified for a unix socket.

server’ specifies that the socket shall be a listening socket.

nowait’ specifies that QEMU should not block waiting for a client to connect to a listening socket.

telnet’ specifies that traffic on the socket should interpret telnet escape sequences.

TCP and unix socket options are given below:

TCP options: port=host [,host=host] [,to=to] [,ipv4] [,ipv6] [,nodelay]

host’ for a listening socket specifies the local address to be bound. For a connecting socket species the remote host to connect to. ‘host’ is optional for listening sockets. If not specified it defaults to 0.0.0.0.

port’ for a listening socket specifies the local port to be bound. For a connecting socket specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. ‘port’ can be given as either a port number or a service name. ‘port’ is required.

to’ is only relevant to listening sockets. If it is specified, and ‘port’ cannot be bound, QEMU will attempt to bind to subsequent ports up to and including ‘to’ until it succeeds. ‘to’ must be specified as a port number.

ipv4’ and ‘ipv6’ specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used. If neither is specified the socket may use either protocol.

nodelay’ disables the Nagle algorithm.

unix options: path=path

path’ specifies the local path of the unix socket. ‘path’ is required.

-chardev udp ,id=id [,host=host] ,port=port [,localaddr=localaddr] [,localport=localport] [,ipv4] [,ipv6]

Sends all traffic from the guest to a remote host over UDP.

host’ specifies the remote host to connect to. If not specified it defaults to localhost.

port’ specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. ‘port’ is required.

localaddr’ specifies the local address to bind to. If not specified it defaults to 0.0.0.0.

localport’ specifies the local port to bind to. If not specified any available local port will be used.

ipv4’ and ‘ipv6’ specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used. If neither is specified the device may use either protocol.

-chardev msmouse ,id=id

Forward QEMU’s emulated msmouse events to the guest. ‘msmouse’ does not take any options.

-chardev vc ,id=id [[,width=width] [,height=height]] [[,cols=cols] [,rows=rows]]

Connect to a QEMU text console. ‘vc’ may optionally be given a specific size.

width’ and ‘height’ specify the width and height respectively of the console, in pixels.

cols’ and ‘rows’ specify that the console be sized to fit a text console with the given dimensions.

-chardev file ,id=id ,path=path

Log all traffic received from the guest to a file.

path’ specifies the path of the file to be opened. This file will be created if it does not already exist, and overwritten if it does. ‘path’ is required.

-chardev pipe ,id=id ,path=path

Create a two-way connection to the guest. The behaviour differs slightly between Windows hosts and other hosts:

On Windows, a single duplex pipe will be created at ‘\\.pipe\‘path’.

On other hosts, 2 pipes will be created called ‘path’.in’ and ‘path’.out’. Data written to ‘path’.in’ will be received by the guest. Data written by the guest can be read from ‘path’.out’. QEMU will not create these fifos, and requires them to be present.

path’ forms part of the pipe path as described above. ‘path’ is required.

-chardev console ,id=id

Send traffic from the guest to QEMU’s standard output. ‘console’ does not take any options.

console’ is only available on Windows hosts.

-chardev serial ,id=id ,path=‘path

Send traffic from the guest to a serial device on the host.

serial’ is only available on Windows hosts.

path’ specifies the name of the serial device to open.

-chardev pty ,id=id

Create a new pseudo-terminal on the host and connect to it. ‘pty’ does not take any options.

pty’ is not available on Windows hosts.

-chardev stdio ,id=id

Connect to standard input and standard output of the qemu process. ‘stdio’ does not take any options. ‘stdio’ is not available on Windows hosts.

-chardev braille ,id=id

Connect to a local BrlAPI server. ‘braille’ does not take any options.

-chardev tty ,id=id ,path=path

Connect to a local tty device.

tty’ is only available on Linux, Sun, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.

path’ specifies the path to the tty. ‘path’ is required.

-chardev parport ,id=id ,path=path

parport’ is only available on Linux, FreeBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.

Connect to a local parallel port.

path’ specifies the path to the parallel port device. ‘path’ is required.

Bluetooth(R) options:

-bt hci[...]

Defines the function of the corresponding Bluetooth HCI. -bt options are matched with the HCIs present in the chosen machine type. For example when emulating a machine with only one HCI built into it, only the first -bt hci[...]option is valid and defines the HCI’s logic. The Transport Layer is decided by the machine type. Currently the machines n800and n810have one HCI and all other machines have none.

The following three types are recognized:

-bt hci,null

(default) The corresponding Bluetooth HCI assumes no internal logic and will not respond to any HCI commands or emit events.

-bt hci,host[:id]

(bluezonly) The corresponding HCI passes commands / events to / from the physical HCI identified by the name id (default: hci0) on the computer running QEMU. Only available on bluezcapable systems like Linux.

-bt hci[,vlan=n]

Add a virtual, standard HCI that will participate in the Bluetooth scatternet n (default 0). Similarly to ‘-net’ VLANs, devices inside a bluetooth network n can only communicate with other devices in the same network (scatternet).

-bt vhci[,vlan=n]

(Linux-host only) Create a HCI in scatternet n (default 0) attached to the host bluetooth stack instead of to the emulated target. This allows the host and target machines to participate in a common scatternet and communicate. Requires the Linux vhcidriver installed. Can be used as following:

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -bt hci,vlan=5 -bt vhci,vlan=5
-bt device:dev[,vlan=n]

Emulate a bluetooth device dev and place it in network n (default 0). QEMU can only emulate one type of bluetooth devices currently:

keyboard

Virtual wireless keyboard implementing the HIDP bluetooth profile.

Linux/Multiboot boot specific:

When using these options, you can use a given Linux or Multiboot kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful for easier testing of various kernels.

-kernel bzImage

Use bzImage as kernel image. The kernel can be either a Linux kernel or in multiboot format.

-append cmdline

Use cmdline as kernel command line

-initrd file

Use file as initial ram disk.

-initrd "file1 arg=foo,file2"

This syntax is only available with multiboot.

Use file1 and file2 as modules and pass arg=foo as parameter to the first module.

Debug/Expert options:

-serial dev

Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device dev. The default device is vcin graphical mode and stdioin non graphical mode.

This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serial ports.

Use -serial noneto disable all serial ports.

Available character devices are:

vc[:WxH]

Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with

 
vc:800x600

It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:

 
vc:80Cx24C
pty

[Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)

none

No device is allocated.

null

void device

/dev/XXX

[Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. ‘/dev/ttyS0’. The host serial port parameters are set according to the emulated ones.

/dev/parportN

[Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port N. Currently SPP and EPP parallel port features can be used.

file:filename

Write output to filename. No character can be read.

stdio

[Unix only] standard input/output

pipe:filename

name pipe filename

COMn

[Windows only] Use host serial port n

udp:[remote_host]:remote_port[@[src_ip]:src_port]

This implements UDP Net Console. When remote_host or src_ip are not specified they default to 0.0.0.0. When not using a specified src_port a random port is automatically chosen.

If you just want a simple readonly console you can use netcator nc, by starting qemu with: -serial udp::4555and nc as: nc -u -l -p 4555. Any time qemu writes something to that port it will appear in the netconsole session.

If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop and start qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same source port each time by using something like -serial udp::4555@:4556to qemu. Another approach is to use a patched version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive characters via udp. If you have a patched version of netcat which activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can use the following options to step up a netcat redirector to allow telnet on port 5555 to access the qemu port.

Qemu Options:

-serial udp::4555@:4556

netcat options:

-u -P 4555 -L 0.0.0.0:4556 -t -p 5555 -I -T

telnet options:

localhost 5555

tcp:[host]:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]

The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation. It can send the serial I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location. By default the TCP Net Console is sent to host at the port. If you use the server option QEMU will wait for a client socket application to connect to the port before continuing, unless the nowaitoption was specified. The nodelayoption disables the Nagle buffering algorithm. If host is omitted, 0.0.0.0 is assumed. Only one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use telnetto connect to the corresponding character device.

Example to send tcp console to 192.168.0.2 port 4444

-serial tcp:192.168.0.2:4444

Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection

-serial tcp::4444,server

Example to not wait and listen on ip 192.168.0.100 port 4444

-serial tcp:192.168.0.100:4444,server,nowait

telnet:host:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]

The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets. The options work the same as if you had specified -serial tcp. The difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using telnet option negotiation. This will also allow you to send the MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break sequence. Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.

unix:path[,server][,nowait]

A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket. The option works the same as if you had specified -serial tcpexcept the unix domain socket path is used for connections.

mon:dev_string

This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto another serial port. The monitor is accessed with key sequence of <Control-a> and then pressing <c>. See monitor access Keys in the -nographic section for more keys. dev_string should be any one of the serial devices specified above. An example to multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server listening on port 4444 would be:

-serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait
braille

Braille device. This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real or fake device.

msmouse

Three button serial mouse. Configure the guest to use Microsoft protocol.

-parallel dev

Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device dev (same devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, ‘/dev/parportN’ can be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host parallel port.

This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel ports.

Use -parallel noneto disable all parallel ports.

-monitor dev

Redirect the monitor to host device dev (same devices as the serial port). The default device is vcin graphical mode and stdioin non graphical mode.

-mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]

Setup monitor on chardev name.

-pidfile file

Store the QEMU process PID in file. It is useful if you launch QEMU from a script.

-singlestep

Run the emulation in single step mode.

-S

Do not start CPU at startup (you must typec’ in the monitor).

-gdb dev

Wait for gdb connection on device dev (see section GDB usage). Typical connections will likely be TCP-based, but also UDP, pseudo TTY, or even stdio are reasonable use case. The latter is allowing to start qemu from within gdb and establish the connection via a pipe:

 
(gdb) target remote | exec qemu -gdb stdio ...
-s

Shorthand for -gdb tcp::1234, i.e. open a gdbserver on TCP port 1234 (see section GDB usage).

-d

Output log in /tmp/qemu.log

-hdachs c,h,s,[,t]

Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= c <= 16383, 1 <= h <= 16, 1 <= s <= 63) and optionally force the BIOS translation mode (t=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can guess all those parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk images.

-L path

Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.

-bios file

Set the filename for the BIOS.

-enable-kvm

Enable KVM full virtualization support. This option is only available if KVM support is enabled when compiling.

-no-reboot

Exit instead of rebooting.

-no-shutdown

Don’t exit QEMU on guest shutdown, but instead only stop the emulation. This allows for instance switching to monitor to commit changes to the disk image.

-loadvm file

Start right away with a saved state (loadvmin monitor)

-daemonize

Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization. QEMU will not detach from standard IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices. This option is a useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having to cope with initialization race conditions.

-option-rom file

Load the contents of file as an option ROM. This option is useful to load things like EtherBoot.

-clock method

Force the use of the given methods for timer alarm. To see what timers are available use -clock ?.

-rtc [base=utc|localtime|date][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]

Specify ‘base’ as utcor localtimeto let the RTC start at the current UTC or local time, respectively. localtimeis required for correct date in MS-DOS or Windows. To start at a specific point in time, provide date in the format 2006-06-17T16:01:21or 2006-06-17. The default base is UTC.

By default the RTC is driven by the host system time. This allows to use the RTC as accurate reference clock inside the guest, specifically if the host time is smoothly following an accurate external reference clock, e.g. via NTP. If you want to isolate the guest time from the host, even prevent it from progressing during suspension, you can set ‘clock’ to vminstead.

Enable ‘driftfix’ (i386 targets only) if you experience time drift problems, specifically with Windows’ ACPI HAL. This option will try to figure out how many timer interrupts were not processed by the Windows guest and will re-inject them.

-icount [N|auto]

Enable virtual instruction counter. The virtual cpu will execute one instruction every 2^N ns of virtual time. If autois specified then the virtual cpu speed will be automatically adjusted to keep virtual time within a few seconds of real time.

Note that while this option can give deterministic behavior, it does not provide cycle accurate emulation. Modern CPUs contain superscalar out of order cores with complex cache hierarchies. The number of instructions executed often has little or no correlation with actual performance.

-watchdog model

Create a virtual hardware watchdog device. Once enabled (by a guest action), the watchdog must be periodically polled by an agent inside the guest or else the guest will be restarted.

The model is the model of hardware watchdog to emulate. Choices for model are: ib700(iBASE 700) which is a very simple ISA watchdog with a single timer, or i6300esb(Intel 6300ESB I/O controller hub) which is a much more featureful PCI-based dual-timer watchdog. Choose a model for which your guest has drivers.

Use -watchdog ?to list available hardware models. Only one watchdog can be enabled for a guest.

-watchdog-action action

The action controls what QEMU will do when the watchdog timer expires. The default is reset(forcefully reset the guest). Other possible actions are: shutdown(attempt to gracefully shutdown the guest), poweroff(forcefully poweroff the guest), pause(pause the guest), debug(print a debug message and continue), or none(do nothing).

Note that the shutdownaction requires that the guest responds to ACPI signals, which it may not be able to do in the sort of situations where the watchdog would have expired, and thus -watchdog-action shutdownis not recommended for production use.

Examples:

-watchdog i6300esb -watchdog-action pause
-watchdog ib700
-echr numeric_ascii_value

Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using monitor and serial sharing. The default is 0x01when using the -nographicoption. 0x01is equal to pressing Control-a. You can select a different character from the ascii control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z. For instance you could use the either of the following to change the escape character to Control-t.

-echr 0x14
-echr 20
-virtioconsole c

Set virtio console.

-nodefaults

Don’t create default devices.

-chroot dir

Immediately before starting guest execution, chroot to the specified directory. Especially useful in combination with -runas.

-runas user

Immediately before starting guest execution, drop root privileges, switching to the specified user.

-readconfig file

Read device configuration from file.

-writeconfig file

Write device configuration to file.


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3.4 Keys

During the graphical emulation, you can use the following keys:

<Ctrl-Alt-f>

Toggle full screen

<Ctrl-Alt-u>

Restore the screen’s un-scaled dimensions

<Ctrl-Alt-n>

Switch to virtual console ’n’. Standard console mappings are:

1

Target system display

2

Monitor

3

Serial port

<Ctrl-Alt>

Toggle mouse and keyboard grab.

In the virtual consoles, you can use <Ctrl-Up>, <Ctrl-Down>, <Ctrl-PageUp> and <Ctrl-PageDown> to move in the back log.

During emulation, if you are using the ‘-nographicoption, use <Ctrl-a h> to get terminal commands:

<Ctrl-a h>
<Ctrl-a ?>

Print this help

<Ctrl-a x>

Exit emulator

<Ctrl-a s>

Save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)

<Ctrl-a t>

Toggle console timestamps

<Ctrl-a b>

Send break (magic sysrq in Linux)

<Ctrl-a c>

Switch between console and monitor

<Ctrl-a Ctrl-a>

Send Ctrl-a


[ < ] [ > ]   [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ]         [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ]

3.5 QEMU Monitor

The QEMU monitor is used to give complex commands to the QEMU emulator. You can use it to:


[ < ] [ > ]   [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ]         [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ]

3.5.1 Commands

The following commands are available:

help or ? [cmd]

Show the help for all commands or just for command cmd.

commit

Commit changes to the disk images (if -snapshot is used) or backing files.

info subcommand

Show various information about the system state.

info version

show the version of QEMU

info network

show the various VLANs and the associated devices

info chardev

show the character devices

info block

show the block devices

info block

show block device statistics

info registers

show the cpu registers

info cpus

show infos for each CPU

info history

show the command line history

info irq

show the interrupts statistics (if available)

info pic

show i8259 (PIC) state

info pci

show emulated PCI device info

info tlb

show virtual to physical memory mappings (i386 only)

info mem

show the active virtual memory mappings (i386 only)

info hpet

show state of HPET (i386 only)

info kvm

show KVM information

info usb

show USB devices plugged on the virtual USB hub

info usbhost

show all USB host devices

info profile

show profiling information

info capture

show information about active capturing

info snapshots

show list of VM snapshots

info status

show the current VM status (running|paused)

info pcmcia

show guest PCMCIA status

info mice

show which guest mouse is receiving events

info vnc

show the vnc server status

info name

show the current VM name

info uuid

show the current VM UUID

info cpustats

show CPU statistics

info usernet

show user network stack connection states

info migrate

show migration status

info balloon

show balloon information

info qtree

show device tree

q or quit

Quit the emulator.

eject [-f] device

Eject a removable medium (use -f to force it).

change device setting

Change the configuration of a device.

change diskdevice filename [format]

Change the medium for a removable disk device to point to filename. eg

 
(qemu) change ide1-cd0 /path/to/some.iso

format is optional.

change vnc display,options

Change the configuration of the VNC server. The valid syntax for display and options are described at Invocation. eg

 
(qemu) change vnc localhost:1
change vnc password [password]

Change the password associated with the VNC server. If the new password is not supplied, the monitor will prompt for it to be entered. VNC passwords are only significant up to 8 letters. eg

 
(qemu) change vnc password
Password: ********
screendump filename

Save screen into PPM image filename.

logfile filename

Output logs to filename.

log item1[,...]

Activate logging of the specified items to ‘/tmp/qemu.log’.

savevm [tag|id]

Create a snapshot of the whole virtual machine. If tag is provided, it is used as human readable identifier. If there is already a snapshot with the same tag or ID, it is replaced. More info at VM snapshots.

loadvm tag|id

Set the whole virtual machine to the snapshot identified by the tag tag or the unique snapshot ID id.

delvm tag|id

Delete the snapshot identified by tag or id.

singlestep [off]

Run the emulation in single step mode. If called with option off, the emulation returns to normal mode.

stop

Stop emulation.

c or cont

Resume emulation.

gdbserver [port]

Start gdbserver session (default port=1234)

x/fmt addr

Virtual memory dump starting at addr.

xp /fmt addr

Physical memory dump starting at addr.

fmt is a format which tells the command how to format the data. Its syntax is: ‘/{count}{format}{size}

count

is the number of items to be dumped.

format

can be x (hex), d (signed decimal), u (unsigned decimal), o (octal), c (char) or i (asm instruction).

size

can be b (8 bits), h (16 bits), w (32 bits) or g (64 bits). On x86, hor wcan be specified with the iformat to respectively select 16 or 32 bit code instruction size.

Examples:

  • Dump 10 instructions at the current instruction pointer:
     
    (qemu) x/10i $eip
    0x90107063:  ret
    0x90107064:  sti
    0x90107065:  lea    0x0(%esi,1),%esi
    0x90107069:  lea    0x0(%edi,1),%edi
    0x90107070:  ret
    0x90107071:  jmp    0x90107080
    0x90107073:  nop
    0x90107074:  nop
    0x90107075:  nop
    0x90107076:  nop
    
  • Dump 80 16 bit values at the start of the video memory.
     
    (qemu) xp/80hx 0xb8000
    0x000b8000: 0x0b50 0x0b6c 0x0b65 0x0b78 0x0b38 0x0b36 0x0b2f 0x0b42
    0x000b8010: 0x0b6f 0x0b63 0x0b68 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b56 0x0b47 0x0b41
    0x000b8020: 0x0b42 0x0b69 0x0b6f 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b63 0x0b75 0x0b72
    0x000b8030: 0x0b72 0x0b65 0x0b6e 0x0b74 0x0b2d 0x0b63 0x0b76 0x0b73
    0x000b8040: 0x0b20 0x0b30 0x0b35 0x0b20 0x0b4e 0x0b6f 0x0b76 0x0b20
    0x000b8050: 0x0b32 0x0b30 0x0b30 0x0b33 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
    0x000b8060: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
    0x000b8070: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
    0x000b8080: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
    0x000b8090: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
    
p or print/fmt expr

Print expression value. Only the format part of fmt is used. Read I/O port. Write to I/O port.

sendkey keys

Send keys to the emulator. keys could be the name of the key or #followed by the raw value in either decimal or hexadecimal format. Use -to press several keys simultaneously. Example:

 
sendkey ctrl-alt-f1

This command is useful to send keys that your graphical user interface intercepts at low level, such as ctrl-alt-f1in X Window.

system_reset

Reset the system.

system_powerdown

Power down the system (if supported).

sum addr size

Compute the checksum of a memory region.

usb_add devname

Add the USB device devname. For details of available devices see Connecting USB devices

usb_del devname

Remove the USB device devname from the QEMU virtual USB hub. devname has the syntax bus.addr. Use the monitor command info usbto see the devices you can remove.

device_add config

Add device.

device_del id

Remove device id. Set the default CPU.

mouse_move dx dy [dz]

Move the active mouse to the specified coordinates dx dy with optional scroll axis dz.

mouse_button val

Change the active mouse button state val (1=L, 2=M, 4=R).

mouse_set index

Set which mouse device receives events at given index, index can be obtained with

 
info mice
wavcapture filename [frequency [bits [channels]]]

Capture audio into filename. Using sample rate frequency bits per sample bits and number of channels channels.

Defaults:

  • - Sample rate = 44100 Hz - CD quality
  • - Bits = 16
  • - Number of channels = 2 - Stereo
stopcapture index

Stop capture with a given index, index can be obtained with

 
info capture
memsave addr size file

save to disk virtual memory dump starting at addr of size size.

pmemsave addr size file

save to disk physical memory dump starting at addr of size size.

boot_set bootdevicelist

Define new values for the boot device list. Those values will override the values specified on the command line through the -bootoption.

The values that can be specified here depend on the machine type, but are the same that can be specified in the -bootcommand line option.

nmi cpu

Inject an NMI on the given CPU (x86 only).

migrate [-d] uri

Migrate to uri (using -d to not wait for completion).

migrate_cancel

Cancel the current VM migration.

migrate_set_speed value

Set maximum speed to value (in bytes) for migrations.

migrate_set_downtime second

Set maximum tolerated downtime (in seconds) for migration.

drive_add

Add drive to PCI storage controller.

pci_add

Hot-add PCI device.

pci_del

Hot remove PCI device.

host_net_add

Add host VLAN client.

host_net_remove

Remove host VLAN client.

host_net_redir

Redirect TCP or UDP connections from host to guest (requires -net user).

balloon value

Request VM to change its memory allocation to value (in MB).

set_link name [up|down]

Set link name up or down.

watchdog_action

Change watchdog action.

acl_show aclname

List all the matching rules in the access control list, and the default policy. There are currently two named access control lists, vnc.x509dname and vnc.username matching on the x509 client certificate distinguished name, and SASL username respectively.

acl_policy aclname allow|deny

Set the default access control list policy, used in the event that none of the explicit rules match. The default policy at startup is always deny.

acl_allow aclname match allow|deny[index]

Add a match rule to the access control list, allowing or denying access. The match will normally be an exact username or x509 distinguished name, but can optionally include wildcard globs. eg *@EXAMPLE.COMto allow all users in the EXAMPLE.COMkerberos realm. The match will normally be appended to the end of the ACL, but can be inserted earlier in the list if the optional index parameter is supplied.

acl_remove aclname match

Remove the specified match rule from the access control list.

acl_remove aclname match

Remove all matches from the access control list, and set the default policy back to deny.

mce cpu bank status mcgstatus addr misc

Inject an MCE on the given CPU (x86 only).

getfd fdname

If a file descriptor is passed alongside this command using the SCM_RIGHTS mechanism on unix sockets, it is stored using the name fdname for later use by other monitor commands.

closefd fdname

Close the file descriptor previously assigned to fdname using the getfdcommand. This is only needed if the file descriptor was never used by another monitor command.


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3.5.2 Integer expressions

The monitor understands integers expressions for every integer argument. You can use register names to get the value of specifics CPU registers by prefixing them with $.


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3.6 Disk Images

Since version 0.6.1, QEMU supports many disk image formats, including growable disk images (their size increase as non empty sectors are written), compressed and encrypted disk images. Version 0.8.3 added the new qcow2 disk image format which is essential to support VM snapshots.


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3.6.1 Quick start for disk image creation

You can create a disk image with the command:

 
qemu-img create myimage.img mysize

where myimage.img is the disk image filename and mysize is its size in kilobytes. You can add an Msuffix to give the size in megabytes and a Gsuffix for gigabytes.

See qemu-imgInvocation for more information.


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3.6.2 Snapshot mode

If you use the option-snapshot’, all disk images are considered as read only. When sectors in written, they are written in a temporary file created in ‘/tmp’. You can however force the write back to the raw disk images by using the commitmonitor command (or <C-a s> in the serial console).


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3.6.3 VM snapshots

VM snapshots are snapshots of the complete virtual machine including CPU state, RAM, device state and the content of all the writable disks. In order to use VM snapshots, you must have at least one non removable and writable block device using the qcow2disk image format. Normally this device is the first virtual hard drive.

Use the monitor command savevmto create a new VM snapshot or replace an existing one. A human readable name can be assigned to each snapshot in addition to its numerical ID.

Use loadvmto restore a VM snapshot and delvmto remove a VM snapshot. info snapshotslists the available snapshots with their associated information:

 
(qemu) info snapshots
Snapshot devices: hda
Snapshot list (from hda):
ID        TAG                 VM SIZE                DATE       VM CLOCK
1         start                   41M 2006-08-06 12:38:02   00:00:14.954
2                                 40M 2006-08-06 12:43:29   00:00:18.633
3         msys                    40M 2006-08-06 12:44:04   00:00:23.514

A VM snapshot is made of a VM state info (its size is shown in info snapshots) and a snapshot of every writable disk image. The VM state info is stored in the first qcow2non removable and writable block device. The disk image snapshots are stored in every disk image. The size of a snapshot in a disk image is difficult to evaluate and is not shown by info snapshotsbecause the associated disk sectors are shared among all the snapshots to save disk space (otherwise each snapshot would need a full copy of all the disk images).

When using the (unrelated) -snapshotoption (Snapshot mode), you can always make VM snapshots, but they are deleted as soon as you exit QEMU.

VM snapshots currently have the following known limitations:

  • They cannot cope with removable devices if they are removed or inserted after a snapshot is done.
  • A few device drivers still have incomplete snapshot support so their state is not saved or restored properly (in particular USB).

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3.6.4 qemu-imgInvocation

 
usage: qemu-img command [command options]

The following commands are supported:

check [-f fmt] filename
create [-f fmt] [-o options] filename [size]
commit [-f fmt] filename
convert [-c] [-f fmt] [-O output_fmt] [-o options] filename [filename2 [...]] output_filename
info [-f fmt] filename
snapshot [-l | -a snapshot | -c snapshot | -d snapshot] filename

Command parameters:

filename

is a disk image filename

fmt

is the disk image format. It is guessed automatically in most cases. See below for a description of the supported disk formats.

size

is the disk image size in bytes. Optional suffixes kor K(kilobyte, 1024) M(megabyte, 1024k) and G(gigabyte, 1024M) and T (terabyte, 1024G) are supported. bis ignored.

output_filename

is the destination disk image filename

output_fmt

is the destination format

options

is a comma separated list of format specific options in a name=value format. Use -o ?for an overview of the options supported by the used format or see the format descriptions below for details.

-c

indicates that target image must be compressed (qcow format only)

-h

with or without a command shows help and lists the supported formats

Parameters to snapshot subcommand:

snapshot

is the name of the snapshot to create, apply or delete

-a

applies a snapshot (revert disk to saved state)

-c

creates a snapshot

-d

deletes a snapshot

-l

lists all snapshots in the given image

Command description:

create [-f fmt] [-o options] filename [size]

Create the new disk image filename of size size and format fmt. Depending on the file format, you can add one or more options that enable additional features of this format.

If the option backing_file is specified, then the image will record only the differences from backing_file. No size needs to be specified in this case. backing_file will never be modified unless you use the commitmonitor command (or qemu-img commit).

The size can also be specified using the size option with -o, it doesn’t need to be specified separately in this case.

commit [-f fmt] filename

Commit the changes recorded in filename in its base image.

convert [-c] [-f fmt] [-O output_fmt] [-o options] filename [filename2 [...]] output_filename

Convert the disk image filename to disk image output_filename using format output_fmt. It can be optionally compressed (-coption) or use any format specific options like encryption (-ooption).

Only the formats qcowand qcow2support compression. The compression is read-only. It means that if a compressed sector is rewritten, then it is rewritten as uncompressed data.

Image conversion is also useful to get smaller image when using a growable format such as qcowor cow: the empty sectors are detected and suppressed from the destination image.

You can use the backing_file option to force the output image to be created as a copy on write image of the specified base image; the backing_file should have the same content as the input’s base image, however the path, image format, etc may differ.

info [-f fmt] filename

Give information about the disk image filename. Use it in particular to know the size reserved on disk which can be different from the displayed size. If VM snapshots are stored in the disk image, they are displayed too.

snapshot [-l | -a snapshot | -c snapshot | -d snapshot ] filename

List, apply, create or delete snapshots in image filename.

Supported image file formats:

raw

Raw disk image format (default). This format has the advantage of being simple and easily exportable to all other emulators. If your file system supports holes (for example in ext2 or ext3 on Linux or NTFS on Windows), then only the written sectors will reserve space. Use qemu-img infoto know the real size used by the image or ls -lson Unix/Linux.

host_device

Host device format. This format should be used instead of raw when converting to block devices or other devices where "holes" are not supported.

qcow2

QEMU image format, the most versatile format. Use it to have smaller images (useful if your filesystem does not supports holes, for example on Windows), optional AES encryption, zlib based compression and support of multiple VM snapshots.

Supported options:

backing_file

File name of a base image (see ‘create’ subcommand)

backing_fmt

Image format of the base image

encryption

If this option is set to on, the image is encrypted.

Encryption uses the AES format which is very secure (128 bit keys). Use a long password (16 characters) to get maximum protection.

cluster_size

Changes the qcow2 cluster size (must be between 512 and 2M). Smaller cluster sizes can improve the image file size whereas larger cluster sizes generally provide better performance.

preallocation

Preallocation mode (allowed values: off, metadata). An image with preallocated metadata is initially larger but can improve performance when the image needs to grow.

qcow

Old QEMU image format. Left for compatibility.

Supported options:

backing_file

File name of a base image (see ‘create’ subcommand)

encryption

If this option is set to on, the image is encrypted.

cow

User Mode Linux Copy On Write image format. Used to be the only growable image format in QEMU. It is supported only for compatibility with previous versions. It does not work on win32.

vdi

VirtualBox 1.1 compatible image format.

vmdk

VMware 3 and 4 compatible image format.

Supported options:

backing_fmt

Image format of the base image

compat6

Create a VMDK version 6 image (instead of version 4)

vpc

VirtualPC compatible image format (VHD).

cloop

Linux Compressed Loop image, useful only to reuse directly compressed CD-ROM images present for example in the Knoppix CD-ROMs.


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3.6.5 qemu-nbdInvocation

 
usage: qemu-nbd [OPTION]...  filename

Export Qemu disk image using NBD protocol.

filename

is a disk image filename

-p, --port=port

port to listen on (default1024’)

-o, --offset=offset

offset into the image

-b, --bind=iface

interface to bind to (default0.0.0.0’)

-k, --socket=path

Use a unix socket with path path

-r, --read-only

export read-only

-P, --partition=num

only expose partition num

-s, --snapshot

use snapshot file

-n, --nocache

disable host cache

-c, --connect

connect FILE to NBD device DEV

-d, --disconnect

disconnect the specified device

-e, --shared=num

device can be shared by num clients (default1’)

-t, --persistent

don’t exit on the last connection

-v, --verbose

display extra debugging information

-h, --help

display this help and exit

-V, --version

output version information and exit


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3.6.6 Using host drives

In addition to disk image files, QEMU can directly access host devices. We describe here the usage for QEMU version >= 0.8.3.


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3.6.6.1 Linux

On Linux, you can directly use the host device filename instead of a disk image filename provided you have enough privileges to access it. For example, use ‘/dev/cdrom’ to access to the CDROM or ‘/dev/fd0’ for the floppy.

CD

You can specify a CDROM device even if no CDROM is loaded. QEMU has specific code to detect CDROM insertion or removal. CDROM ejection by the guest OS is supported. Currently only data CDs are supported.

Floppy

You can specify a floppy device even if no floppy is loaded. Floppy removal is currently not detected accurately (if you change floppy without doing floppy access while the floppy is not loaded, the guest OS will think that the same floppy is loaded).

Hard disks

Hard disks can be used. Normally you must specify the whole disk (‘/dev/hdb’ instead of ‘/dev/hdb1’) so that the guest OS can see it as a partitioned disk. WARNING: unless you know what you do, it is better to only make READ-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwise you may corrupt your host data (use the ‘-snapshot’ command line option or modify the device permissions accordingly).


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3.6.6.2 Windows

CD

The preferred syntax is the drive letter (e.g. ‘d:’). The alternate syntax\\.\d:’ is supported. ‘/dev/cdrom’ is supported as an alias to the first CDROM drive.

Currently there is no specific code to handle removable media, so it is better to use the changeor ejectmonitor commands to change or eject media.

Hard disks

Hard disks can be used with the syntax: ‘\\.\PhysicalDriveN’ where N is the drive number (0 is the first hard disk).

WARNING: unless you know what you do, it is better to only make READ-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwise you may corrupt your host data (use the ‘-snapshot’ command line so that the modifications are written in a temporary file).


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3.6.6.3 Mac OS X

/dev/cdrom’ is an alias to the first CDROM.

Currently there is no specific code to handle removable media, so it is better to use the changeor ejectmonitor commands to change or eject media.


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3.6.7 Virtual FAT disk images

QEMU can automatically create a virtual FAT disk image from a directory tree. In order to use it, just type:

 
qemu linux.img -hdb fat:/my_directory

Then you access access to all the files in the ‘/my_directory’ directory without having to copy them in a disk image or to export them via SAMBA or NFS. The default access is read-only.

Floppies can be emulated with the :floppy:option:

 
qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:/my_directory

A read/write support is available for testing (beta stage) with the :rw:option:

 
qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:rw:/my_directory

What you should never do:

  • use non-ASCII filenames ;
  • use "-snapshot" together with ":rw:" ;
  • expect it to work when loadvm’ing ;
  • write to the FAT directory on the host system while accessing it with the guest system.

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3.6.8 NBD access

QEMU can access directly to block device exported using the Network Block Device protocol.

 
qemu linux.img -hdb nbd:my_nbd_server.mydomain.org:1024

If the NBD server is located on the same host, you can use an unix socket instead of an inet socket:

 
qemu linux.img -hdb nbd:unix:/tmp/my_socket

In this case, the block device must be exported using qemu-nbd:

 
qemu-nbd --socket=/tmp/my_socket my_disk.qcow2

The use of qemu-nbd allows to share a disk between several guests:

 
qemu-nbd --socket=/tmp/my_socket --share=2 my_disk.qcow2

and then you can use it with two guests:

 
qemu linux1.img -hdb nbd:unix:/tmp/my_socket
qemu linux2.img -hdb nbd:unix:/tmp/my_socket

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3.7 Network emulation

QEMU can simulate several network cards (PCI or ISA cards on the PC target) and can connect them to an arbitrary number of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs). Host TAP devices can be connected to any QEMU VLAN. VLAN can be connected between separate instances of QEMU to simulate large networks. For simpler usage, a non privileged user mode network stack can replace the TAP device to have a basic network connection.


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3.7.1 VLANs

QEMU simulates several VLANs. A VLAN can be symbolised as a virtual connection between several network devices. These devices can be for example QEMU virtual Ethernet cards or virtual Host ethernet devices (TAP devices).


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3.7.2 Using TAP network interfaces

This is the standard way to connect QEMU to a real network. QEMU adds a virtual network device on your host (called tapN), and you can then configure it as if it was a real ethernet card.


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3.7.2.1 Linux host

As an example, you can download the ‘linux-test-xxx.tar.gz’ archive and copy the scriptqemu-ifup’ in ‘/etc’ and configure properly sudoso that the command ifconfigcontained in ‘qemu-ifup’ can be executed as root. You must verify that your host kernel supports the TAP network interfaces: the device ‘/dev/net/tun’ must be present.

See Invocation to have examples of command lines using the TAP network interfaces.


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3.7.2.2 Windows host

There is a virtual ethernet driver for Windows 2000/XP systems, called TAP-Win32. But it is not included in standard QEMU for Windows, so you will need to get it separately. It is part of OpenVPN package, so download OpenVPN from : http://openvpn.net/.


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3.7.3 Using the user mode network stack

By using the option-net user’ (default configuration if no ‘-netoption is specified), QEMU uses a completely user mode network stack (you don’t need root privilege to use the virtual network). The virtual network configuration is the following:

 
         QEMU VLAN      <------>  Firewall/DHCP server <-----> Internet
                           |          (10.0.2.2)
                           |
                           ---->  DNS server (10.0.2.3)
                           |
                           ---->  SMB server (10.0.2.4)

The QEMU VM behaves as if it was behind a firewall which blocks all incoming connections. You can use a DHCP client to automatically configure the network in the QEMU VM. The DHCP server assign addresses to the hosts starting from 10.0.2.15.

In order to check that the user mode network is working, you can ping the address 10.0.2.2 and verify that you got an address in the range 10.0.2.x from the QEMU virtual DHCP server.

Note that pingis not supported reliably to the internet as it would require root privileges. It means you can only ping the local router (10.0.2.2).

When using the built-in TFTP server, the router is also the TFTP server.

When using the ‘-rediroption, TCP or UDP connections can be redirected from the host to the guest. It allows for example to redirect X11, telnet or SSH connections.


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3.7.4 Connecting VLANs between QEMU instances

Using the ‘-net socketoption, it is possible to make VLANs that span several QEMU instances. See Invocation to have a basic example.


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3.8 Direct Linux Boot

This section explains how to launch a Linux kernel inside QEMU without having to make a full bootable image. It is very useful for fast Linux kernel testing.

The syntax is:

 
qemu -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img -append "root=/dev/hda"

Use ‘-kernel’ to provide the Linux kernel image and ‘-append’ to give the kernel command line arguments. The ‘-initrdoption can be used to provide an INITRD image.

When using the direct Linux boot, a disk image for the first hard diskhda’ is required because its boot sector is used to launch the Linux kernel.

If you do not need graphical output, you can disable it and redirect the virtual serial port and the QEMU monitor to the console with the ‘-nographicoption. The typical command line is:

 
qemu -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img \
     -append "root=/dev/hda console=ttyS0" -nographic

Use <Ctrl-a c> to switch between the serial console and the monitor (see section Keys).


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3.9 USB emulation

QEMU emulates a PCI UHCI USB controller. You can virtually plug virtual USB devices or real host USB devices (experimental, works only on Linux hosts). Qemu will automatically create and connect virtual USB hubs as necessary to connect multiple USB devices.


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3.9.1 Connecting USB devices

USB devices can be connected with the ‘-usbdevice’ commandline option or the usb_addmonitor command. Available devices are:

mouse

Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

tablet

Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

disk:file

Mass storage device based on file (see section Disk Images)

host:bus.addr

Pass through the host device identified by bus.addr (Linux only)

host:vendor_id:product_id

Pass through the host device identified by vendor_id:product_id (Linux only)

wacom-tablet

Virtual Wacom PenPartner tablet. This device is similar to the tabletabove but it can be used with the tslib library because in addition to touch coordinates it reports touch pressure.

keyboard

Standard USB keyboard. Will override the PS/2 keyboard (if present).

serial:[vendorid=vendor_id][,product_id=product_id]:dev

Serial converter. This emulates an FTDI FT232BM chip connected to host character device dev. The available character devices are the same as for the -serialoption. The vendoridand productidoptions can be used to override the default 0403:6001. For instance,

 
usb_add serial:productid=FA00:tcp:192.168.0.2:4444

will connect to tcp port 4444 of ip 192.168.0.2, and plug that to the virtual serial converter, faking a Matrix Orbital LCD Display (USB ID 0403:FA00).

braille

Braille device. This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real or fake device.

net:options

Network adapter that supports CDC ethernet and RNDIS protocols. options specifies NIC options as with -net nic,options (see description). For instance, user-mode networking can be used with

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -net user,vlan=0 -usbdevice net:vlan=0

Currently this cannot be used in machines that support PCI NICs.

bt[:hci-type]

Bluetooth dongle whose type is specified in the same format as with the ‘-bt hcioption, see allowed HCI types. If no type is given, the HCI logic corresponds to -bt hci,vlan=0. This USB device implements the USB Transport Layer of HCI. Example usage:

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -usbdevice bt:hci,vlan=3 -bt device:keyboard,vlan=3

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3.9.2 Using host USB devices on a Linux host

WARNING: this is an experimental feature. QEMU will slow down when using it. USB devices requiring real time streaming (i.e. USB Video Cameras) are not supported yet.

  1. If you use an early Linux 2.4 kernel, verify that no Linux driver is actually using the USB device. A simple way to do that is simply to disable the corresponding kernel module by renaming it from ‘mydriver.o’ to ‘mydriver.o.disabled’.
  2. Verify that ‘/proc/bus/usb’ is working (most Linux distributions should enable it by default). You should see something like that:
     
    ls /proc/bus/usb
    001  devices  drivers
    
  3. Since only root can access to the USB devices directly, you can either launch QEMU as root or change the permissions of the USB devices you want to use. For testing, the following suffices:
     
    chown -R myuid /proc/bus/usb
    
  4. Launch QEMU and do in the monitor:
     
    info usbhost
      Device 1.2, speed 480 Mb/s
        Class 00: USB device 1234:5678, USB DISK
    

    You should see the list of the devices you can use (Never try to use hubs, it won’t work).

  5. Add the device in QEMU by using:
     
    usb_add host:1234:5678
    

    Normally the guest OS should report that a new USB device is plugged. You can use the option-usbdevice’ to do the same.

  6. Now you can try to use the host USB device in QEMU.

When relaunching QEMU, you may have to unplug and plug again the USB device to make it work again (this is a bug).


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3.10 VNC security

The VNC server capability provides access to the graphical console of the guest VM across the network. This has a number of security considerations depending on the deployment scenarios.


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3.10.1 Without passwords

The simplest VNC server setup does not include any form of authentication. For this setup it is recommended to restrict it to listen on a UNIX domain socket only. For example

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc unix:/home/joebloggs/.qemu-myvm-vnc

This ensures that only users on local box with read/write access to that path can access the VNC server. To securely access the VNC server from a remote machine, a combination of netcat+ssh can be used to provide a secure tunnel.


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3.10.2 With passwords

The VNC protocol has limited support for password based authentication. Since the protocol limits passwords to 8 characters it should not be considered to provide high security. The password can be fairly easily brute-forced by a client making repeat connections. For this reason, a VNC server using password authentication should be restricted to only listen on the loopback interface or UNIX domain sockets. Password authentication is requested with the passwordoption, and then once QEMU is running the password is set with the monitor. Until the monitor is used to set the password all clients will be rejected.

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,password -monitor stdio
(qemu) change vnc password
Password: ********
(qemu)

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3.10.3 With x509 certificates

The QEMU VNC server also implements the VeNCrypt extension allowing use of TLS for encryption of the session, and x509 certificates for authentication. The use of x509 certificates is strongly recommended, because TLS on its own is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks. Basic x509 certificate support provides a secure session, but no authentication. This allows any client to connect, and provides an encrypted session.

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,tls,x509=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor stdio

In the above example /etc/pki/qemushould contain at least three files, ca-cert.pem, server-cert.pemand server-key.pem. Unprivileged users will want to use a private directory, for example $HOME/.pki/qemu. NB the server-key.pemfile should be protected with file mode 0600 to only be readable by the user owning it.


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3.10.4 With x509 certificates and client verification

Certificates can also provide a means to authenticate the client connecting. The server will request that the client provide a certificate, which it will then validate against the CA certificate. This is a good choice if deploying in an environment with a private internal certificate authority.

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor stdio

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3.10.5 With x509 certificates, client verification and passwords

Finally, the previous method can be combined with VNC password authentication to provide two layers of authentication for clients.

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,password,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor stdio
(qemu) change vnc password
Password: ********
(qemu)

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3.10.6 With SASL authentication

The SASL authentication method is a VNC extension, that provides an easily extendable, pluggable authentication method. This allows for integration with a wide range of authentication mechanisms, such as PAM, GSSAPI/Kerberos, LDAP, SQL databases, one-time keys and more. The strength of the authentication depends on the exact mechanism configured. If the chosen mechanism also provides a SSF layer, then it will encrypt the datastream as well.

Refer to the later docs on how to choose the exact SASL mechanism used for authentication, but assuming use of one supporting SSF, then QEMU can be launched with:

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,sasl -monitor stdio

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3.10.7 With x509 certificates and SASL authentication

If the desired SASL authentication mechanism does not supported SSF layers, then it is strongly advised to run it in combination with TLS and x509 certificates. This provides securely encrypted data stream, avoiding risk of compromising of the security credentials. This can be enabled, by combining the ’sasl’ option with the aforementioned TLS + x509 options:

 
qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,tls,x509,sasl -monitor stdio

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3.10.8 Generating certificates for VNC

The GNU TLS packages provides a command called certtoolwhich can be used to generate certificates and keys in PEM format. At a minimum it is neccessary to setup a certificate authority, and issue certificates to each server. If using certificates for authentication, then each client will also need to be issued a certificate. The recommendation is for the server to keep its certificates in either /etc/pki/qemuor for unprivileged users in $HOME/.pki/qemu.


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3.10.8.1 Setup the Certificate Authority

This step only needs to be performed once per organization / organizational unit. First the CA needs a private key. This key must be kept VERY secret and secure. If this key is compromised the entire trust chain of the certificates issued with it is lost.

 
# certtool --generate-privkey > ca-key.pem

A CA needs to have a public certificate. For simplicity it can be a self-signed certificate, or one issue by a commercial certificate issuing authority. To generate a self-signed certificate requires one core piece of information, the name of the organization.

 
# cat > ca.info <<EOF
cn = Name of your organization
ca
cert_signing_key
EOF
# certtool --generate-self-signed \
           --load-privkey ca-key.pem
           --template ca.info \
           --outfile ca-cert.pem

The ca-cert.pemfile should be copied to all servers and clients wishing to utilize TLS support in the VNC server. The ca-key.pemmust not be disclosed/copied at all.


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3.10.8.2 Issuing server certificates

Each server (or host) needs to be issued with a key and certificate. When connecting the certificate is sent to the client which validates it against the CA certificate. The core piece of information for a server certificate is the hostname. This should be the fully qualified hostname that the client will connect with, since the client will typically also verify the hostname in the certificate. On the host holding the secure CA private key:

 
# cat > server.info <<EOF
organization = Name  of your organization
cn = server.foo.example.com
tls_www_server
encryption_key
signing_key
EOF
# certtool --generate-privkey > server-key.pem
# certtool --generate-certificate \
           --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem \
           --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem \
           --load-privkey server server-key.pem \
           --template server.info \
           --outfile server-cert.pem

The server-key.pemand server-cert.pemfiles should now be securely copied to the server for which they were generated. The server-key.pemis security sensitive and should be kept protected with file mode 0600 to prevent disclosure.


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3.10.8.3 Issuing client certificates

If the QEMU VNC server is to use the x509verifyoption to validate client certificates as its authentication mechanism, each client also needs to be issued a certificate. The client certificate contains enough metadata to uniquely identify the client, typically organization, state, city, building, etc. On the host holding the secure CA private key:

 
# cat > client.info <<EOF
country = GB
state = London
locality = London
organiazation = Name of your organization
cn = client.foo.example.com
tls_www_client
encryption_key
signing_key
EOF
# certtool --generate-privkey > client-key.pem
# certtool --generate-certificate \
           --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem \
           --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem \
           --load-privkey client-key.pem \
           --template client.info \
           --outfile client-cert.pem

The client-key.pemand client-cert.pemfiles should now be securely copied to the client for which they were generated.


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3.10.9 Configuring SASL mechanisms

The following documentation assumes use of the Cyrus SASL implementation on a Linux host, but the principals should apply to any other SASL impl. When SASL is enabled, the mechanism configuration will be loaded from system default SASL service config /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an unprivileged user, an environment variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used to make it search alternate locations for the service config.

The default configuration might contain

 
mech_list: digest-md5
sasldb_path: /etc/qemu/passwd.db

This says to use the ’Digest MD5’ mechanism, which is similar to the HTTP Digest-MD5 mechanism. The list of valid usernames & passwords is maintained in the /etc/qemu/passwd.db file, and can be updated using the saslpasswd2 command. While this mechanism is easy to configure and use, it is not considered secure by modern standards, so only suitable for developers / ad-hoc testing.

A more serious deployment might use Kerberos, which is done with the ’gssapi’ mechanism

 
mech_list: gssapi
keytab: /etc/qemu/krb5.tab

For this to work the administrator of your KDC must generate a Kerberos principal for the server, with a name of ’qemu/somehost.example.com@EXAMPLE.COMsomehost.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM’ replacing ’somehost.example.com’ with the fully qualified host name of the machine running QEMU, and ’EXAMPLE.COM’ with the Keberos Realm.

Other configurations will be left as an exercise for the reader. It should be noted that only Digest-MD5 and GSSAPI provides a SSF layer for data encryption. For all other mechanisms, VNC should always be configured to use TLS and x509 certificates to protect security credentials from snooping.


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3.11 GDB usage

QEMU has a primitive support to work with gdb, so that you can do ’Ctrl-C’ while the virtual machine is running and inspect its state.

In order to use gdb, launch qemu with the ’-s’ option. It will wait for a gdb connection:

 
> qemu -s -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img \
       -append "root=/dev/hda"
Connected to host network interface: tun0
Waiting gdb connection on port 1234

Then launch gdb on the ’vmlinux’ executable:

 
> gdb vmlinux

In gdb, connect to QEMU:

 
(gdb) target remote localhost:1234

Then you can use gdb normally. For example, typec’ to launch the kernel:

 
(gdb) c

Here are some useful tips in order to use gdb on system code:

  1. Use info regto display all the CPU registers.
  2. Use x/10i $eipto display the code at the PC position.
  3. Use set architecture i8086to dump 16 bit code. Then use x/10i $cs*16+$eipto dump the code at the PC position.

Advanced debugging options:

The default single stepping behavior is step with the IRQs and timer service routines off. It is set this way because when gdb executes a single step it expects to advance beyond the current instruction. With the IRQs and and timer service routines on, a single step might jump into the one of the interrupt or exception vectors instead of executing the current instruction. This means you may hit the same breakpoint a number of times before executing the instruction gdb wants to have executed. Because there are rare circumstances where you want to single step into an interrupt vector the behavior can be controlled from GDB. There are three commands you can query and set the single step behavior:

maintenance packet qqemu.sstepbits

This will display the MASK bits used to control the single stepping IE:

 
(gdb) maintenance packet qqemu.sstepbits
sending: "qqemu.sstepbits"
received: "ENABLE=1,NOIRQ=2,NOTIMER=4"
maintenance packet qqemu.sstep

This will display the current value of the mask used when single stepping IE:

 
(gdb) maintenance packet qqemu.sstep
sending: "qqemu.sstep"
received: "0x7"
maintenance packet Qqemu.sstep=HEX_VALUE

This will change the single step mask, so if wanted to enable IRQs on the single step, but not timers, you would use:

 
(gdb) maintenance packet Qqemu.sstep=0x5
sending: "qemu.sstep=0x5"
received: "OK"

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3.12 Target OS specific information


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3.12.1 Linux

To have access to SVGA graphic modes under X11, use the vesaor the cirrusX11 driver. For optimal performances, use 16 bit color depth in the guest and the host OS.

When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, you should add the option clock=piton the kernel command line because the 2.6 Linux kernels make very strict real time clock checks by default that QEMU cannot simulate exactly.

When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, verify that the 4G/4G patch is not activated because QEMU is slower with this patch. The QEMU Accelerator Module is also much slower in this case. Earlier Fedora Core 3 Linux kernel (< 2.6.9-1.724_FC3) were known to incorporate this patch by default. Newer kernels don’t have it.


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3.12.2 Windows

If you have a slow host, using Windows 95 is better as it gives the best speed. Windows 2000 is also a good choice.


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3.12.2.1 SVGA graphic modes support

QEMU emulates a Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from Windows 95 should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal performances, use 16 bit color depth in the guest and the host OS.

If you are using Windows XP as guest OS and if you want to use high resolution modes which the Cirrus Logic BIOS does not support (i.e. >= 1280x1024x16), then you should use the VESA VBE virtual graphic card (option-std-vga’).


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3.12.2.2 CPU usage reduction

Windows 9x does not correctly use the CPU HLT instruction. The result is that it takes host CPU cycles even when idle. You can install the utility from Maxamn (amnhltm) to solve this problem. Note that no such tool is needed for NT, 2000 or XP.


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3.12.2.3 Windows 2000 disk full problem

Windows 2000 has a bug which gives a disk full problem during its installation. When installing it, use the ‘-win2k-hackQEMU option to enable a specific workaround. After Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option slows down the IDE transfers).


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3.12.2.4 Windows 2000 shutdown

Windows 2000 cannot automatically shutdown in QEMU although Windows 98 can. It comes from the fact that Windows 2000 does not automatically use the APM driver provided by the BIOS.

In order to correct that, do the following (thanks to Struan Bartlett): go to the Control Panel => Add/Remove Hardware & Next => Add/Troubleshoot a device => Add a new device & Next => No, select the hardware from a list & Next => NT Apm/Legacy Support & Next => Next (again) a few times. Now the driver is installed and Windows 2000 now correctly instructs QEMU to shutdown at the appropriate moment.


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3.12.2.5 Share a directory between Unix and Windows

See Invocation about the help of the option-smb’.


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3.12.2.6 Windows XP security problem

Some releases of Windows XP install correctly but give a security error when booting:

 
A problem is preventing Windows from accurately checking the
license for this computer. Error code: 0x800703e6.

The workaround is to install a service pack for XP after a boot in safe mode. Then reboot, and the problem should go away. Since there is no network while in safe mode, its recommended to download the full installation of SP1 or SP2 and transfer that via an ISO or using the vvfat block device ("-hdb fat:directory_which_holds_the_SP").


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3.12.3 MS-DOS and FreeDOS


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3.12.3.1 CPU usage reduction

DOS does not correctly use the CPU HLT instruction. The result is that it takes host CPU cycles even when idle. VMWare offered a utility called DOS Idle to solve this problem.


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4. QEMU System emulator for non PC targets

QEMU is a generic emulator and it emulates many non PC machines. Most of the options are similar to the PC emulator. The differences are mentioned in the following sections.


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4.1 QEMU PowerPC System emulator

Use the executable ‘qemu-system-ppc’ to simulate a complete PREP or PowerMac PowerPC system.

QEMU emulates the following PowerMac peripherals:

  • - UniNorth or Grackle PCI Bridge
  • - PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
  • - 2 PMAC IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
  • - NE2000 PCI adapters
  • - Non Volatile RAM
  • - VIA-CUDA with ADB keyboard and mouse.

QEMU emulates the following PREP peripherals:

  • - PCI Bridge
  • - PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
  • - 2 IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
  • - Floppy disk
  • - NE2000 network adapters
  • - Serial port
  • - PREP Non Volatile RAM
  • - PC compatible keyboard and mouse.

QEMU uses the Open Hack’Ware Open Firmware Compatible BIOS.

Since version 0.9.1, QEMU uses OpenBIOS http://www.openfirmware.info/Welcome_to_OpenBIOS for the g3beige and mac99 PowerMac machines. OpenBIOS is a free (GPL v2) portable firmware implementation. The goal is to implement a 100% IEEE 1275-1994 (referred to as Open Firmware) compliant firmware.

The following options are specific to the PowerPC emulation:

-g WxH[xDEPTH]

Set the initial VGA graphic mode. The default is 800x600x15.

-prom-env string

Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

 
qemu-system-ppc -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false' \
 -prom-env 'boot-device=hd:2,\yaboot' \
 -prom-env 'boot-args=conf=hd:2,\yaboot.conf'

These variables are not used by Open Hack’Ware.


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4.2 Sparc32 System emulator

Use the executable ‘qemu-system-sparc’ to simulate the following Sun4m architecture machines:

  • - SPARCstation 4
  • - SPARCstation 5
  • - SPARCstation 10
  • - SPARCstation 20
  • - SPARCserver 600MP
  • - SPARCstation LX
  • - SPARCstation Voyager
  • - SPARCclassic
  • - SPARCbook

The emulation is somewhat complete. SMP up to 16 CPUs is supported, but Linux limits the number of usable CPUs to 4.

It’s also possible to simulate a SPARCstation 2 (sun4c architecture), SPARCserver 1000, or SPARCcenter 2000 (sun4d architecture), but these emulators are not usable yet.

QEMU emulates the following sun4m/sun4c/sun4d peripherals:

  • - IOMMU or IO-UNITs
  • - TCX Frame buffer
  • - Lance (Am7990) Ethernet
  • - Non Volatile RAM M48T02/M48T08
  • - Slave I/O: timers, interrupt controllers, Zilog serial ports, keyboard and power/reset logic
  • - ESP SCSI controller with hard disk and CD-ROM support
  • - Floppy drive (not on SS-600MP)
  • - CS4231 sound device (only on SS-5, not working yet)

The number of peripherals is fixed in the architecture. Maximum memory size depends on the machine type, for SS-5 it is 256MB and for others 2047MB.

Since version 0.8.2, QEMU uses OpenBIOS http://www.openfirmware.info/Welcome_to_OpenBIOS. OpenBIOS is a free (GPL v2) portable firmware implementation. The goal is to implement a 100% IEEE 1275-1994 (referred to as Open Firmware) compliant firmware.

A sample Linux 2.6 series kernel and ram disk image are available on the QEMU web site. There are still issues with NetBSD and OpenBSD, but some kernel versions work. Please note that currently Solaris kernels don’t work probably due to interface issues between OpenBIOS and Solaris.

The following options are specific to the Sparc32 emulation:

-g WxHx[xDEPTH]

Set the initial TCX graphic mode. The default is 1024x768x8, currently the only other possible mode is 1024x768x24.

-prom-env string

Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

 
qemu-system-sparc -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false' \
 -prom-env 'boot-device=sd(0,2,0):d' -prom-env 'boot-args=linux single'
-M [SS-4|SS-5|SS-10|SS-20|SS-600MP|LX|Voyager|SPARCClassic|SPARCbook|SS-2|SS-1000|SS-2000]

Set the emulated machine type. Default is SS-5.


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4.3 Sparc64 System emulator

Use the executable ‘qemu-system-sparc64’ to simulate a Sun4u (UltraSPARC PC-like machine), Sun4v (T1 PC-like machine), or generic Niagara (T1) machine. The emulator is not usable for anything yet, but it can launch some kernels.

QEMU emulates the following peripherals:

  • - UltraSparc IIi APB PCI Bridge
  • - PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
  • - PS/2 mouse and keyboard
  • - Non Volatile RAM M48T59
  • - PC-compatible serial ports
  • - 2 PCI IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
  • - Floppy disk

The following options are specific to the Sparc64 emulation:

-prom-env string

Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

 
qemu-system-sparc64 -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false'
-M [sun4u|sun4v|Niagara]

Set the emulated machine type. The default is sun4u.


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4.4 MIPS System emulator

Four executables cover simulation of 32 and 64-bit MIPS systems in both endian options, ‘qemu-system-mips’, ‘qemu-system-mipsel’ ‘qemu-system-mips64’ and ‘qemu-system-mips64el’. Five different machine types are emulated:

  • - A generic ISA PC-like machine "mips"
  • - The MIPS Malta prototype board "malta"
  • - An ACER Pica "pica61". This machine needs the 64-bit emulator.
  • - MIPS emulator pseudo board "mipssim"
  • - A MIPS Magnum R4000 machine "magnum". This machine needs the 64-bit emulator.

The generic emulation is supported by Debian ’Etch’ and is able to install Debian into a virtual disk image. The following devices are emulated:

The Malta emulation supports the following devices:

  • - Core board with MIPS 24Kf CPU and Galileo system controller
  • - PIIX4 PCI/USB/SMbus controller
  • - The Multi-I/O chip’s serial device
  • - PCI network cards (PCnet32 and others)
  • - Malta FPGA serial device
  • - Cirrus (default) or any other PCI VGA graphics card

The ACER Pica emulation supports:

  • - MIPS R4000 CPU
  • - PC-style IRQ and DMA controllers
  • - PC Keyboard
  • - IDE controller

The mipssim pseudo board emulation provides an environment similiar to what the proprietary MIPS emulator uses for running Linux. It supports:

  • - A range of MIPS CPUs, default is the 24Kf
  • - PC style serial port
  • - MIPSnet network emulation

The MIPS Magnum R4000 emulation supports:

  • - MIPS R4000 CPU
  • - PC-style IRQ controller
  • - PC Keyboard
  • - SCSI controller
  • - G364 framebuffer

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4.5 ARM System emulator

Use the executable ‘qemu-system-arm’ to simulate a ARM machine. The ARM Integrator/CP board is emulated with the following devices:

  • - ARM926E, ARM1026E, ARM946E, ARM1136 or Cortex-A8 CPU
  • - Two PL011 UARTs
  • - SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
  • - PL110 LCD controller
  • - PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
  • - PL181 MultiMedia Card Interface with SD card.

The ARM Versatile baseboard is emulated with the following devices:

  • - ARM926E, ARM1136 or Cortex-A8 CPU
  • - PL190 Vectored Interrupt Controller
  • - Four PL011 UARTs
  • - SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
  • - PL110 LCD controller
  • - PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
  • - PCI host bridge. Note the emulated PCI bridge only provides access to PCI memory space. It does not provide access to PCI IO space. This means some devices (eg. ne2k_pci NIC) are not usable, and others (eg. rtl8139 NIC) are only usable when the guest drivers use the memory mapped control registers.
  • - PCI OHCI USB controller.
  • - LSI53C895A PCI SCSI Host Bus Adapter with hard disk and CD-ROM devices.
  • - PL181 MultiMedia Card Interface with SD card.

The ARM RealView Emulation/Platform baseboard is emulated with the following devices:

  • - ARM926E, ARM1136, ARM11MPCore, Cortex-A8 or Cortex-A9 MPCore CPU
  • - ARM AMBA Generic/Distributed Interrupt Controller
  • - Four PL011 UARTs
  • - SMC 91c111 or SMSC LAN9118 Ethernet adapter
  • - PL110 LCD controller
  • - PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse
  • - PCI host bridge
  • - PCI OHCI USB controller
  • - LSI53C895A PCI SCSI Host Bus Adapter with hard disk and CD-ROM devices
  • - PL181 MultiMedia Card Interface with SD card.

The XScale-based clamshell PDA models ("Spitz", "Akita", "Borzoi" and "Terrier") emulation includes the following peripherals:

  • - Intel PXA270 System-on-chip (ARM V5TE core)
  • - NAND Flash memory
  • - IBM/Hitachi DSCM microdrive in a PXA PCMCIA slot - not in "Akita"
  • - On-chip OHCI USB controller
  • - On-chip LCD controller
  • - On-chip Real Time Clock
  • - TI ADS7846 touchscreen controller on SSP bus
  • - Maxim MAX1111 analog-digital converter on I^2C bus
  • - GPIO-connected keyboard controller and LEDs
  • - Secure Digital card connected to PXA MMC/SD host
  • - Three on-chip UARTs
  • - WM8750 audio CODEC on I^2C and I^2S busses

The Palm Tungsten|E PDA (codename "Cheetah") emulation includes the following elements:

  • - Texas Instruments OMAP310 System-on-chip (ARM 925T core)
  • - ROM and RAM memories (ROM firmware image can be loaded with -option-rom)
  • - On-chip LCD controller
  • - On-chip Real Time Clock
  • - TI TSC2102i touchscreen controller / analog-digital converter / Audio CODEC, connected through MicroWire and I^2S busses
  • - GPIO-connected matrix keypad
  • - Secure Digital card connected to OMAP MMC/SD host
  • - Three on-chip UARTs

Nokia N800 and N810 internet tablets (known also as RX-34 and RX-44 / 48) emulation supports the following elements:

  • - Texas Instruments OMAP2420 System-on-chip (ARM 1136 core)
  • - RAM and non-volatile OneNAND Flash memories
  • - Display connected to EPSON remote framebuffer chip and OMAP on-chip display controller and a LS041y3 MIPI DBI-C controller
  • - TI TSC2301 (in N800) and TI TSC2005 (in N810) touchscreen controllers driven through SPI bus
  • - National Semiconductor LM8323-controlled qwerty keyboard driven through I^2C bus
  • - Secure Digital card connected to OMAP MMC/SD host
  • - Three OMAP on-chip UARTs and on-chip STI debugging console
  • - A Bluetooth(R) transciever and HCI connected to an UART
  • - Mentor Graphics "Inventra" dual-role USB controller embedded in a TI TUSB6010 chip - only USB host mode is supported
  • - TI TMP105 temperature sensor driven through I^2C bus
  • - TI TWL92230C power management companion with an RTC on I^2C bus
  • - Nokia RETU and TAHVO multi-purpose chips with an RTC, connected through CBUS

The Luminary Micro Stellaris LM3S811EVB emulation includes the following devices:

  • - Cortex-M3 CPU core.
  • - 64k Flash and 8k SRAM.
  • - Timers, UARTs, ADC and I^2C interface.
  • - OSRAM Pictiva 96x16 OLED with SSD0303 controller on I^2C bus.

The Luminary Micro Stellaris LM3S6965EVB emulation includes the following devices:

  • - Cortex-M3 CPU core.
  • - 256k Flash and 64k SRAM.
  • - Timers, UARTs, ADC, I^2C and SSI interfaces.
  • - OSRAM Pictiva 128x64 OLED with SSD0323 controller connected via SSI.

The Freecom MusicPal internet radio emulation includes the following elements:

The Siemens SX1 models v1 and v2 (default) basic emulation. The emulaton includes the following elements:

  • - Texas Instruments OMAP310 System-on-chip (ARM 925T core)
  • - ROM and RAM memories (ROM firmware image can be loaded with -pflash) V1 1 Flash of 16MB and 1 Flash of 8MB V2 1 Flash of 32MB
  • - On-chip LCD controller
  • - On-chip Real Time Clock
  • - Secure Digital card connected to OMAP MMC/SD host
  • - Three on-chip UARTs

The "Syborg" Symbian Virtual Platform base model includes the following elements:

  • - ARM Cortex-A8 CPU
  • - Interrupt controller
  • - Timer
  • - Real Time Clock
  • - Keyboard
  • - Framebuffer
  • - Touchscreen
  • - UARTs

A Linux 2.6 test image is available on the QEMU web site. More information is available in the QEMU mailing-list archive.

The following options are specific to the ARM emulation:

-semihosting

Enable semihosting syscall emulation.

On ARM this implements the "Angel" interface.

Note that this allows guest direct access to the host filesystem, so should only be used with trusted guest OS.


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4.6 ColdFire System emulator

Use the executable ‘qemu-system-m68k’ to simulate a ColdFire machine. The emulator is able to boot a uClinux kernel.

The M5208EVB emulation includes the following devices:

  • - MCF5208 ColdFire V2 Microprocessor (ISA A+ with EMAC).
  • - Three Two on-chip UARTs.
  • - Fast Ethernet Controller (FEC)

The AN5206 emulation includes the following devices:

  • - MCF5206 ColdFire V2 Microprocessor.
  • - Two on-chip UARTs.

The following options are specific to the ARM emulation:

-semihosting

Enable semihosting syscall emulation.

On M68K this implements the "ColdFire GDB" interface used by libgloss.

Note that this allows guest direct access to the host filesystem, so should only be used with trusted guest OS.


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5. QEMU User space emulator


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5.1 Supported Operating Systems

The following OS are supported in user space emulation:


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5.2 Linux User space emulator


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5.2.1 Quick Start

In order to launch a Linux process, QEMU needs the process executable itself and all the target (x86) dynamic libraries used by it.

  • On x86, you can just try to launch any process by using the native libraries:
     
    qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
    

    -L /tells that the x86 dynamic linker must be searched with a ‘/’ prefix.

  • Since QEMU is also a linux process, you can launch qemu with qemu (NOTE: you can only do that if you compiled QEMU from the sources):
     
    qemu-i386 -L / qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
    
  • On non x86 CPUs, you need first to download at least an x86 glibc (‘qemu-runtime-i386-XXX-.tar.gz’ on the QEMU web page). Ensure that LD_LIBRARY_PATHis not set:
     
    unset LD_LIBRARY_PATH
    

    Then you can launch the precompiled ‘ls’ x86 executable:

     
    qemu-i386 tests/i386/ls
    

    You can look at ‘qemu-binfmt-conf.sh’ so that QEMU is automatically launched by the Linux kernel when you try to launch x86 executables. It requires the binfmt_miscmodule in the Linux kernel.

  • The x86 version of QEMU is also included. You can try weird things such as:
     
    qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/qemu-i386 \
              /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
    

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5.2.2 Wine launch

  • Ensure that you have a working QEMU with the x86 glibc distribution (see previous section). In order to verify it, you must be able to do:
     
    qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
    
  • Download the binary x86 Wine install (‘qemu-XXX-i386-wine.tar.gz’ on the QEMU web page).
  • Configure Wine on your account. Look at the provided script/usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/wine-conf.sh’. Your previous ${HOME}/.winedirectory is saved to ${HOME}/.wine.org.
  • Then you can try the example ‘putty.exe’:
     
    qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/bin/wine \
              /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/c/Program\ Files/putty.exe
    

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5.2.3 Command line options

 
usage: qemu-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] [-cpu model] [-g port] [-B offset] program [arguments...]
-h

Print the help

-L path

Set the x86 elf interpreter prefix (default=/usr/local/qemu-i386)

-s size

Set the x86 stack size in bytes (default=524288)

-cpu model

Select CPU model (-cpu ? for list and additional feature selection)

-B offset

Offset guest address by the specified number of bytes. This is useful when the address region rewuired by guest applications is reserved on the host. Ths option is currently only supported on some hosts.

Debug options:

-d

Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)

-p pagesize

Act as if the host page size was ’pagesize’ bytes

-g port

Wait gdb connection to port

-singlestep

Run the emulation in single step mode.

Environment variables:

QEMU_STRACE

Print system calls and arguments similar to the ’strace’ program (NOTE: the actual ’strace’ program will not work because the user space emulator hasn’t implemented ptrace). At the moment this is incomplete. All system calls that don’t have a specific argument format are printed with information for six arguments. Many flag-style arguments don’t have decoders and will show up as numbers.


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5.2.4 Other binaries

qemu-armis also capable of running ARM "Angel" semihosted ELF binaries (as implemented by the arm-elf and arm-eabi Newlib/GDB configurations), and arm-uclinux bFLT format binaries.

qemu-m68kis capable of running semihosted binaries using the BDM (m5xxx-ram-hosted.ld) or m68k-sim (sim.ld) syscall interfaces, and coldfire uClinux bFLT format binaries.

The binary format is detected automatically.

qemu-sparccan execute Sparc32 binaries (Sparc32 CPU, 32 bit ABI).

qemu-sparc32pluscan execute Sparc32 and SPARC32PLUS binaries (Sparc64 CPU, 32 bit ABI).

qemu-sparc64can execute some Sparc64 (Sparc64 CPU, 64 bit ABI) and SPARC32PLUS binaries (Sparc64 CPU, 32 bit ABI).


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5.3 Mac OS X/Darwin User space emulator


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5.3.1 Mac OS X/Darwin Status

  • - target x86 on x86: Most apps (Cocoa and Carbon too) works. [1]
  • - target PowerPC on x86: Not working as the ppc commpage can’t be mapped (yet!)
  • - target PowerPC on PowerPC: Most apps (Cocoa and Carbon too) works. [1]
  • - target x86 on PowerPC: most utilities work. Cocoa and Carbon apps are not yet supported.

[1] If you’re host commpage can be executed by qemu.


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5.3.2 Quick Start

In order to launch a Mac OS X/Darwin process, QEMU needs the process executable itself and all the target dynamic libraries used by it. If you don’t have the FAT libraries (you’re running Mac OS X/ppc) you’ll need to obtain it from a Mac OS X CD or compile them by hand.

  • On x86, you can just try to launch any process by using the native libraries:
     
    qemu-i386 /bin/ls
    

    or to run the ppc version of the executable:

     
    qemu-ppc /bin/ls
    
  • On ppc, you’ll have to tell qemu where your x86 libraries (and dynamic linker) are installed:
     
    qemu-i386 -L /opt/x86_root/ /bin/ls
    

    -L /opt/x86_root/tells that the dynamic linker (dyld) path is in ‘/opt/x86_root/usr/bin/dyld’.


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5.3.3 Command line options

 
usage: qemu-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
-h

Print the help

-L path

Set the library root path (default=/)

-s size

Set the stack size in bytes (default=524288)

Debug options:

-d

Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)

-p pagesize

Act as if the host page size was ’pagesize’ bytes

-singlestep

Run the emulation in single step mode.


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5.4 BSD User space emulator


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5.4.1 BSD Status

  • - target Sparc64 on Sparc64: Some trivial programs work.

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5.4.2 Quick Start

In order to launch a BSD process, QEMU needs the process executable itself and all the target dynamic libraries used by it.

  • On Sparc64, you can just try to launch any process by using the native libraries:
     
    qemu-sparc64 /bin/ls
    

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5.4.3 Command line options

 
usage: qemu-sparc64 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] [-bsd type] program [arguments...]
-h

Print the help

-L path

Set the library root path (default=/)

-s size

Set the stack size in bytes (default=524288)

-bsd type

Set the type of the emulated BSD Operating system. Valid values are FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD (default).

Debug options:

-d

Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)

-p pagesize

Act as if the host page size was ’pagesize’ bytes

-singlestep

Run the emulation in single step mode.


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6. Compilation from the sources


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6.1 Linux/Unix


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6.1.1 Compilation

First you must decompress the sources:

 
cd /tmp
tar zxvf qemu-x.y.z.tar.gz
cd qemu-x.y.z

Then you configure QEMU and build it (usually no options are needed):

 
./configure
make

Then type as root user:

 
make install

to install QEMU in ‘/usr/local’.


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6.2 Windows


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6.3 Cross compilation for Windows with Linux

Note: Currently, Wine does not seem able to launch QEMU for Win32.


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6.4 Mac OS X

The Mac OS X patches are not fully merged in QEMU, so you should look at the QEMU mailing list archive to have all the necessary information.


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7. Index


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Table of Contents


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About This Document

This document was generated by Anthony Liguori on January 29, 2010 using texi2html 1.82.

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where the Example assumes that the current position is at Subsubsection One-Two-Three of a document of the following structure:

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