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Pages with category Unix

  • systemd has come as the default boot loader since Ubuntu 15.04. The old version, upstart, is now considered deprecated. Systemd has an interface pretty similar to the upstart service command line.

    ...
    Command Description Support Persist
    systemctl start SERVICE
    Start SERVICE Always No
    systemctl stop SERVICE
    Stop SERVICE Always No
    systemctl restart SERVICE
    Restart SERVICE Always No
  • The Error: pivot_root not found

    Debian or Ubuntu and pivot_root and GRUB and hard drives... In general, I like Linux, but once in a while, it generates quite a few problems!

  • Hard to believe, but the FreeBSD top utility does NOT sort by CPU usage by default. I guess there is some other magic. 99.9% of all the system you run now a day will have way more processes that can be displayed in one window. This means you need to have the processes that use the most CPU at the top to see what's running and taking too much time.

  • I just received my new D-Link USB wireless dongle to connect my Linux system to my wireless network...

    I looked like it was detected as the device was flash and lsmod showed all sorts of USB entries as expected (with the correct device number, something like 2800.)

    But the thing would not connect.

    Looking at the log I had a message saying "networking is disabled by state file". This came from the Network Manager which was indeed disabled! Editing the following file:

    /var/lib/NetworkManager.state

    and changing the NetworkingEnabled variable from false to true made everything ...

  • The following is a list of the Ubuntu versions with their name.

    I find it really annoying when someone says "I have such" and he/she has no clue what version (i.e. 7.10) it is. Then I have to look it up because I don't memorize the numbers to the names, but I know what the numbers entitles.

    So... I need a table and I had one on Wikipedia, but that was wiped out. So now, I'll keep my own here and I'll try to keep it up to date. I start with the version Mar 16, 2009 from the Ubuntu Release page. We can hope that they will maintain that page as they move forward though. It ...

  • Today I did an upgrade of a server from 9.10 to 10.04. We were on a server version before upgrading to 9.10 but we could not directly upgrade to 10.04 (working upgrade paths are very specific; see a list here: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes )

    The most surprising part was the python script at the end.

      /usr/bin/python /tmp/unique-folder/lucid --mode=server --frontend=DistUpgradeViewText
    

    The command line itself is not specifically strange. However, the behavior at the end of the script is a bit strange, mainly because I hadn't see it before. Last time the upgrade was

  • The following command adds a rule to your iptable firewall:

    iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 255 -j ACCEPT

    As we can see, the rule accepts protocol ICMP and uses ICMP type 255. Only, if you look for a list of valid ICMP types, 255 is not included.

    The fact is that this rule actually says: accept any ICMP type. If you changed the ACCEPT with DROP, it would refuse all ICMP packets. In most cases, it is safe to accept ICMP packets since they do not divulge more information than necessary.

    Note that in your firewall script, you may use "any" instead of 255. That will make it ...

  • I get a set of upgrades, about once a day these days (the Ubuntu and other Open Source developers are keeping way too busy!)

    Because of that, I run the software updater. That takes time, generally. But why is that?

    After various upgrades from one OS version to another, possibly from the start, I dunno exactly when it broke, but the autoremove feature stopped uninstalling the old kernels.

    In itself, it is not so bad, you just get additional kernels under /boot. It can be come a problem if you have a small /boot partition, but otherwise, it is not a big problem in itself.

    Until you upgrade!

  • I got a new word press website a couple days ago and got it installed in the last few days. There were 3 images missing so I started working on getting them in. When I got the first image, I went to Wordpress and I got an error... with no detailed explaination (maybe there is a log, but I don't know Wordpress that well to tell.)

    The error message was just: IO Error

    I was pretty sure that the problem was just that the folder where Wordpress tries to upload the new content was write protected from the Apache user. Under Ubuntu and Debian, the default name for that user is www-data and

  • Setup

    When writing a CRON job script that you want to install under /etc/cron.*/job-name you must remember to apply the following steps:

    1. Write the script and test it as root

    2. Make sure to give it execution permission, usually 755

    3. The ownership is expected to be root:root

    4. The filename cannot include a period or the file it completely ignored

    5. The script MUST start with #!/bin/sh or an equivalent (i.e. #!/bin/bash works too.)

    6. Use full paths for most everything1

    • 1. Remember that the cron environment is minimal, you generally will have PATH defined and not much

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  • Fedora

    Linux system based on the now discontinued free RedHat distribution. Previously called FedoraCore.

  • create
  • embedded

    Embedded software is a reference to software written to work in a piece of hardware equipment. At first, this was code written directly for a specialized processor such as an FPGA or a DSP. Today, regular computers will be used for applications such as a medical device or a kiosk and it is also called embedded software, even though these just are desktop applications...

  • low
  • scan

    In software, scanning means checking the content of memory or a disk for something. In hardware, you have scanners that read the colors on a piece of paper. In the C language, you have a function called sscan() (String Scan,) which I recommend you avoid, but is used to scan the content of a string.